Wednesday, May 24, 2017

I Corinthians 1:1-31

I Corinthians 1:1-31

1. Verses 1-3 Paul was called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through whose will? (1)

Whom did Paul address his letter to at Corinth? (2) Who were they?

2. Verses 4-9  The Corinthians had been enriched three ways by God and his Son. Name them? (4-5)

What does Paul say was confirmed in the Christians at Corinth? (6) What does this mean?

Paul wrote the Corinthians should be favored how in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ? (8)

Into whose fellowship had the Corinthians been called by God? (9)

3. Verses 10-17 Paul beseeched the brethren at by the name of our Lord for three things. Name them? (10)

What is being said in verse 10?

Who declared to Paul that there was contention in the church? (11)  What do you think about that?

How many people did Paul baptize at Corinth? (14-17)

Paul wrote the Corinthians that Christ sent him not to baptize, but to do what? (17) What does this mean?

4. Verses 18-25 What is the preaching of the cross to those who are saved according to Paul? (18)

What is being said in verse 18? What do you think about that?

When Paul quoted Isaiah 29:14 to the Corinthians, what will be destroyed and brought to nothing? (19)

Why mention this? What do you think about that?

Paul wrote that it pleased God to save them that believe by what means? (21) Why is being said?

Who does Paul say that they require a sign and who seeks Wisdom? (22)

What is preached to the Jews and the Greeks in this verse? (23)

5. Verses 26-31 Paul stated that God had chosen the foolish things of the world to do what? (27)

What does this mean? What do you think about that?

What does Paul say should glory in God’s presence? (29) What does this mean?

Can you name four things that Christ is made unto Christians? (30) What is being said?

How should all Christians glory? (31)

Discussion Questions

1. What are your spiritual gifts?

2. How do we use what God has blessed us with?

3. How do we confront those in sin?

1 Corinthians 1:1 Paul, called to be an apostle - There is great propriety in every clause of the salutation, particularly in this, as there were some in the church of Corinth who called the authority of his mission in question. Through the will of God - Called "the commandment of God," 1Ti_1:1 This was to the churches the ground of his authority; to Paul himself, of an humble and ready mind. By the mention of God, the authority of man is excluded, Gal_1:1; by the mention of the will of God, the merit of Paul, 1Co_15:8, &c. And Sosthenes - A Corinthian, St. Paul's companion in travel. It was both humility and prudence in the apostle, thus to join his name with his own, in an epistle wherein he was to reprove so many irregularities. Sosthenes the brother - Probably this word is emphatical; as if he had said, Who, from a Jewish opposer of the gospel, became a faithful brother.
1 Corinthians 1:7 Waiting - With earnest desire. For the glorious revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ - A sure mark of a true or false Christian, to long for, or dread, this revelation.
1 Corinthians 1:9 God is faithful - To all his promises; and therefore "to him that hath shall be given." By whom ye are called - A pledge of his willingness to save you unto the uttermost.
1 Corinthians 1:13 Is Christ divided - Are not all the members still under one head? Was not he alone crucified for you all; and were ye not all baptized in his name? The glory of Christ then is not to be divided between him and his servants; neither is the unity of the body to be torn asunder, seeing Christ is one still.
**1 Corinthians 1:14 I thank God ... - Why Paul did not himself baptize, see in 1Co_1:17. To him it was now a subject of grateful reflection that he had not done it. He had not given any occasion for the suspicion that he had intended to set himself up as a leader of a sect or party. But Crispus - Crispus had been the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth; Act_18:8. And Gaius - Gaius resided at Corinth, and at his house Paul resided when he wrote the Epistle to the Romans; Rom_16:23. It is also possible that the Third Epistle of John was directed to this man; see 3Jo_1:1. And if so, then probably Diotrephes 3Jo_1:9, who is mentioned as one who loved “to have the pre-eminence,” had been one cause of the difficulties at Corinth. The other persons at Corinth had been probably baptized by Silas and Timothy.
**1 Corinthians 1:15 Lest any should say - Lest any of those who had been baptized should pervert his design, and say that Paul had baptized them unto himself; or, lest any others should, with any appearance of truth, say that he had sought to make disciples to himself. The Ethiopic version renders this, “that ye should not say we were baptized in his name.” Many of the ancient mss. read this, “test any should say that ‘ye were baptized’ into my name.” Mill.
1 Corinthians 1:17 For God did not send me to baptize - That was not my chief errand: those of inferior rank and abilities could do it: though all the apostles were sent to baptize also, Mat_28:19 But to preach the gospel - So the apostle slides into his general proposition: but not with wisdom of speech - With the artificial ornaments of discourse, invented by human wisdom. Lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect - The whole effect of St. Paul's preaching was owing to the power of God accompanying the plain declaration of that great truth, "Christ bore our sins upon the cross." But this effect might have been imputed to another cause, had he come with that wisdom of speech which they admired.
***1 Corinthians 1:18 For the preaching of the cross - Ὁ λογος γαρ ὁ του σταυρου, The doctrine of the cross; or the doctrine that is of or concerning the cross; that is, the doctrine that proclaims salvation to a lost world through the crucifixion of Christ. Is to them that perish foolishness - There are, properly speaking, but two classes of men known where the Gospel is preached: απολλυμενοι, the unbelievers and gainsayers, who are perishing; and σοζομενοι, the obedient believers, who are in a state of salvation. To those who will continue in the first state, the preaching of salvation through the merit of a crucified Savior is folly. To those who believe this doctrine of Christ crucified is the power of God to their salvation; it is divinely efficacious to deliver them from all the power, guilt, and pollution of sin.
1 Corinthians 1:19 For it is written - And the words are remarkably applicable to this great event. Isa_29:14
1 Corinthians 1:20 Where is the wise? &c. - The deliverance of Judea from Sennacherib is what Isaiah refers to in these words; in a bold and beautiful allusion to which, the apostle in the clause that follows triumphs over all the opposition of human wisdom to the victorious gospel of Christ. What could the wise men of the gentiles do against this? or the Jewish scribes? or the disputers of this world? - Those among both, who, proud of their acuteness, were fond of controversy, and thought they could confute all opponents. Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world - That is, shown it to be very foolishness. Isa_33:18
1 Corinthians 1:21 For since in the wisdom of God - According to his wise disposals, leaving them to make the trial. The world - Whether Jewish or gentile, by all its boasted wisdom knew not God - Though the whole creation declared its Creator, and though he declared himself by all the prophets; it pleased God, by a way which those who perish count mere foolishness, to save them that believe.
1 Corinthians 1:22 For whereas the Jews demand of the apostles, as they did of their Lord, more signs still, after all they have seen already; and the Greeks, or gentiles, seek wisdom - The depths of philosophy, and the charms of eloquence.
1 Corinthians 1:23 We go on to preach, in a plain and historical, not rhetorical or philosophical, manner, Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumblingblock - Just opposite to the "signs" they demand. And to the Greeks foolishness - A silly tale, just opposite to the wisdom they seek.
1 Corinthians 1:25 Because the foolishness of God - The gospel scheme, which the world judge to be mere foolishness, is wiser than the wisdom of men; and, weak as they account it, stronger than all the strength of men.
1 Corinthians 1:28 Things that are not - The Jews frequently called the gentiles, "Them that are not," 2 Esdras vi. 56, 57. In so supreme contempt did they hold them. The things that are - In high esteem.
1 Corinthians 1:29 That no flesh - A fit appellation. Flesh is fair, but withering as grass. May glory before God - In God we ought to glory.
1 Corinthians 1:30 Of him - Out of his free grace and mercy. Are ye Engrafted into Christ Jesus, who is made unto us that believe wisdom, who were before utterly foolish and ignorant. Righteousness - The sole ground of our justification, who were before under the wrath and curse of God. Sanctification - A principle of universal holiness, whereas before we were altogether dead in sin. And redemption - That is, complete deliverance from all evil, and eternal bliss both of soul and body.
1 Corinthians 1:31 Let him glory in the Lord - Not in himself, not in the flesh, not in the world. Jer_9:23-24

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Introduction to 1st Corinthians

Date of Writing: The Book of 1 Corinthians was written in approximately A. D. 55.

Purpose of Writing: The apostle Paul founded the church in Corinth. A few years after leaving the church, the apostle Paul heard some disturbing reports about the Corinthian church. They were full of pride and were excusing sexual immorality. Spiritual gifts were being used improperly, and there was rampant misunderstanding of key Christian doctrines. The apostle Paul wrote his first letter to the Corinthians in an attempt to restore the Corinthian church to its foundation—Jesus Christ.

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Job 42:1-17

Job 42:1-17

1. Verses 1-17 When did Job answer the Lord? (1)

What did Job say about God in these two verses of this book? (1-2) What does this mean?

What did Job say about what he had previously said in verse three? (3) What do you think about that?

Why did Job say he would repent of in these verses? (4-6) Why?

Why was God angry with Job’s three friends but not with Job in verse seven? (7)

What is being said? What do you think about that?

What did the Lord tell Eliphaz and his two friends to do in these verses? (8-9)

What do you think about that?

What did the Lord do for Job, according to verse ten of this book? (10)

After all your read in Job why do you think about that?

What did Job’s brothers, sisters, and friends do for Job in verse eleven? (11)

How did the Lord bless Job’s life, according to these verses of this book? (12-15)

What was the rest of Job’s life like, according to these verses? (16-17)

What do you think the purpose of the Book of Job Was?

Discussion Questions
1. When should we answer the Lord?
2. What is the reason we have to go through things?
3. When is the blessings in our life reveled?

*Job 42:1 Then Job answered the Lord, and said. For though he had said he would answer no more, Job 40:5; yet he might mean not in the manner he had, complaining of God and justifying himself; besides he might change his mind without any imputation of falsehood or a lie; see Jer 20:9; to which may be added, that he had then said all he had to say, and did not know he should have more: he then confessed as much as he was convinced of, but it was not enough; and now through what the Lord had since said to him he was more convinced of his ignorance, mistakes, and sins, and had such a sight of God and of himself, that he could not forbear speaking; moreover an injunction was laid upon him from the Lord to speak again, and therefore he was obliged to give in his answer; see Job 40:7.
***Job 42:2 I know that thou canst do every thing - Thy power is unlimited; thy wisdom infinite.
Job 42:3 Who - What am I that I should be guilty of such madness! Therefore - Because my mind was without knowledge. Knew not - I have spoken foolishly and unadvisedly of all things far above my reach.
Job 42:4 Hear - Hear and accept my humble confession. Enquire - I will no more dispute the matter with thee, but beg information from thee. The words which God had uttered to Job by way of challenge, Job returns to him in way of submission.
***Job 42:5 I have heard of thee - I have now such a discovery of thee as I have never had before. I have only heard of thee by tradition, or from imperfect information; now the eye of my mind clearly perceives thee, and in seeing thee, I see myself; for the light that discovers thy glory and excellence, discovers my meanness and vileness.
*Job 42:6 Wherefore I abhor myself,.... Or all my words, as Aben Ezra; all the indecent expressions he had uttered concerning God; he could not bear to think of them; he loathed them, and himself on account of them: sin is abominable in its own nature, and makes men so; it is loathsome to God, and so it is to all good men when they see it in its proper light; am especially when they have a view of the purity and holiness of God, to which that is so very contrary, and also of his grace and goodness in the forgiveness of it; see Isa 6:3, Eze 16:63;
and repent in dust and ashes; which was an external ceremony used by mournful and penitent persons; see Job 2:8; and is expressive of the truth and sincerity of repentance; and never do any more truly mourn for sin and repent of it, are more ashamed of it, or have a more godly sorrow for it, or more ingenuously confess it, and heartily forsake it, than those who with an eye of faith behold God in Christ as a sin forgiving God; or behold their sins through the glass of pardoning grace and mercy; see Zec 12:10.
Job 42:7 Eliphaz - As the eldest of the three, and because he spoke first, and by his example led the rest into the same miscarriages. Two friends - Elihu is not here reproved, because he dealt more mercifully with Job, and did not condemn his person, but only rebuked his sinful expressions. Ye have not, &c. - This is not to be understood absolutely, but comparatively. Job was not so much to be blamed as they, because his opinion concerning the methods of God's providence, and the indifferency of its dispensations towards good and bad men was truer than theirs, which was, that God did always reward good men and punish sinners in this life.
Job 42:8 My servant - Whom though you condemned as an hypocrite, I own for my faithful servant. Offer - By the hand of Job, whom I hereby constitute your priest to pray and sacrifice for you. Lest I deal - Lest my just judgment take hold of you for your false and foolish speeches.
**Job 42:9 The Lord also accepted Job - Margin, as in Job 42:8, “the face of.” The meaning is, that he accepted his prayers and offerings in behalf of his friends.
Job 42:10 Captivity - All his bodily distempers were thoroughly healed, and probably in a moment. His mind was calmed, his peace returned, and the consolations of God were not small with him. Prayed - Whereby he manifests his obedience to God and his true love to them.
Job 42:11 Then - When Job had humbled himself, and God was reconciled to him. Sisters - His kindred. Eat - Feasted with him, to congratulate with him God's great and glorious favour. Bemoaned - They declared the sense which they had of his calamities while they were upon him, although they had hitherto wanted opportunity to express it.
**Job 42:12 So the Lord blessed the latter end of Job - To wit, by giving him double what he had possessed before his calamities came upon him; see Job 42:10. For he had fourteen thousand sheep ... - The possessions which are here enumerated are in each instance just twice as much as he possessed in the early part of his life. In regard to their value, and the rank in society which they indicated, see the notes at Job 1:3. The only thing which is omitted here, and which it is not said was doubled, was his “household,” or “husbandry” (Job 1:3, “margin”), but it is evident that this must have been increased in a corresponding manner to have enabled him to keep and maintain such flocks and herds. We are not to suppose that these were granted to him at once, but as he lived an hundred and forty years after his afflictions, he had ample time to accumulate this property.
***Job 42:13 Seven sons and three daughters - This was the same number as before; and so the Vulgate, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic read: but the Chaldee doubles the sons, “And he had fourteen sons, and three daughters.”
Job 42:14 Jemima - The day, either because of her eminent beauty, or because she was born in the day of his prosperity, after a dark night of affliction. Kezia is the name of a spice of a very fragrant smell, commonly called Cassia. Keren - happuch signifies plenty restored.
Job 42:15 So fair - In the Old Testament we often find women praised for their beauty, but never in the New, because the beauty of holiness is brought to a much clearer light by the gospel.
Job 42:16 After this, &c. - Some conjecture, that he was seventy when his trouble came. If so his age was doubled, as his other possessions.
Job 42:17 Full of days - So coming to his grave, as Eliphaz had spoken, like a ripe shock of corn in its season.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Job 41:1-34

Job 41:1-34

1. Verses 1-34 What could not be used to catch a leviathan? (1-2)

What other weapons do not faze leviathan? (7,26-29)

How much hope did anyone have of overcoming the leviathan? (9) Why?

What belongs to God, according to verse eleven of this book? (11) What does that mean?

Who comes before God and why did God ask who should he pay? (11)

What do you think about that?

What was the pride of leviathan?(15-17)

What came out of the mouth and nostrils of leviathan? (18-21)

What does leviathan cause to boil? (31)

Who is king over every high thing? (34) What does this mean?

What does verse 34 imply in context to Chapter 40 and 41?

Discussion Questions
1. What are we incapable of taming?
2. Does God owe us anything?
3. What does it mean to have a King in our life?

***Job 41:1 Canst thou draw out leviathan - We come now to a subject not less perplexing than that over which we have passed, and a subject on which learned men are less agreed than on the preceding. What is leviathan? The Hebrew word לויתן livyathan is retained by the Vulgate and the Chaldee. The Septuagint have, Αξεις δε δρακοντα; “Canst thou draw out the Dragon?” The Syriac and Arabic have the same. A species of whale has been supposed to be the creature in question; but the description suits no animal but the crocodile or alligator; and it is not necessary to seek elsewhere. The crocodile is a natural inhabitant of the Nile, and other Asiatic and African rivers. It is a creature of enormous voracity and strength, as well as fleetness in swimming. He will attack the largest animals, and even men, with the most daring impetuosity. In proportion to his size he has the largest mouth of all monsters. The upper jaw is armed with forty sharp strong teeth, and the under jaw with thirty-eight. He is clothed with such a coat of mail as cannot be pierced, and can in every direction resist a musket-ball. The Hebrew לוי levi תן ten signifies the coupled dragon; but what this is we know not, unless the crocodile be meant.With a hook - That crocodiles were caught with a baited hook, at least one species of crocodile, we have the testimony of Herodotus, lib. ii., c. 70: Επεαν νωτον συος δελεασῃ περι αγκιστρον, μετιει ες μεσον τον ποταμον, κ. τ. λ. “They take the back or chine of a swine, and bait a hook with it, and throw it into the midst of the river; and the fisherman stands at some distance on the shore holding a young pig, which he irritates, in order to make it squeak. When the crocodile hears this he immediately makes towards the sound; and, finding the baited hook in his way, swallows it, and is then drawn to land, when they dash mud into his eyes, and blind him; after which he is soon despatched.” In this way it seems leviathan was drawn out by a hook: but it was undoubtedly both a difficult and dangerous work, and but barely practicable In the way in which Herodotus relates the matter. Or his tongue with a cord - It is probable that, when the animal was taken, they had some method of casting a noose round his tongue, when opening his mouth; or piercing it with some barbed instrument. Thevenot says that in order to take the crocodile they dig holes on the banks of the river, and cover them with sticks. The crocodiles fall into these, and cannot get out. They leave them there for several days without food, and then let down nooses which they pitch on their jaws, and thus draw them out. This is probably what is meant here.
Job 41:2 Thorn - Or, with an iron hook, or instrument as sharp as a thorn; wherewith thou usest to carry little fishes.
***Job 41:3 Will he make many supplications - There are several allusions in these verses to matters of which we know nothing.
**Job 41:4 Will he make a covenant with thee? - That is, will he submit himself to thee, and enter into a compact to serve thee? Such a compact was made by those who agreed to serve another; and the idea here is, that the animal here referred to could not be reduced to such service - that is, could not be tamed.
Wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? - Canst thou so subdue him that he will be a perpetual slave? The meaning of all this is, that he was an untamable animal, and could not be reduced, as many others could, to domestic use.
Job 41:7 Fill - A whale's you may: but the skin of a crocodile is so hard that an iron or spear will not pierce it.
***Job 41:9 Behold, the hope - If thou miss thy first advantage, there is no hope afterwards: the very sight of this terrible monster would dissipate thy spirit, if thou hadst not a positive advantage against his life, or a place of sure retreat to save thine own.
*Job 41:11 Who hath prevented me, that one should repay him?.... First given me something that was not my own, and so laid me under an obligation to him to make a return. The apostle seems to have respect to this passage, Rom 11:35; whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine; the fowls of the air, the cattle on a thousand hills, the fulness of the earth; gold, silver: precious stones, &c. All things are made by him, are his property and at his dispose; and therefore no man on earth can give him what he has not a prior right unto; see Psa 24:1.
***Job 41:13 Who can discover the face of his garment? - Who can rip up the hide of this terrible monster? Who can take away his covering, in order to pierce his vitals?
Job 41:15 Shut - Closely compacted together, as things that are fastened together by a seal. This likewise is true of the crocodile, but the skin of the whale is smooth and entire without any scales at all.
Job 41:26 Hold - Heb. cannot stand, cannot endure the stroke, but will be broken by it. The crocodile's skin, no sword, nor dart, nor musquet bullet can pierce.
**Job 41:27 He esteemeth iron as straw - He regards instruments made of iron and brass as if they were straw or rotten wood. That is, they make no impression on him. This will agree better with the crocodile than any other animal. So hard is his skin, that a musket-ball will not penetrate it; see numerous quotations proving the hardness of the skin of the crooodile, in Bochart.
Job 41:28 Turned - Hurt him no more than a blow with a little stubble.
***Job 41:30 Sharp stones are under him - So hard and impenetrable are his scales, that splinters of flint are the same to him as the softest reeds.
Job 41:31 Boil - To swell, and foam, and froth by his strong and vehement motion, as any liquor does when it is boiled in a pot, especially boiling ointment. The sea - The great river Nile, is called a sea, both in scripture, as Isa 11:15, and in other authors, as Euphrates is called the sea of Babylon, Isa 21:1; Jer 51:36. Lakes also are most frequently called seas both in the Old and New Testament: and in such lakes the crocodiles are as well as in the Nile.
Job 41:32 Shine - By the white froth or foam upon the waters. The same may be observed in the wake of a ship by night.
***Job 41:32 Shine - By the white froth or foam upon the waters. The same may be observed in the wake of a ship by night.
Job 41:34 King, &c. - He can tame both the behemoth and leviathan, as strong and stout - hearted as they are. This discourse concerning them was brought in, to prove that it is God only, who can look upon proud men and abase them, bring them low, and hide them in the dust, he it is that beholdeth all high things, and wherein men dealt proudly, he is above them. He is king over all the children of pride, brutal or rational, and makes them either bend or break before him.

* Gills Commentaries   ** Barnes Commentaries   *** Clarke's Commentaries   
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Job 39:1-30 to Job 40:1-24

Job 39:1-30 to Job 40:1-24

Job Chapter 39

What other animals does God ask Job about? (1,5,9,13,19,26,27)

What is the focus of the Lord’s second round of questions to Job in these verses? (1-30)

Job Chapter 40

What did God challenge Job to do in these verses of this book? (1-2) Why?

What do you think about that?

What did Job say in these two verses? (3-4)

How did Job respond to God’s challenge, according to these verses? (4-5)

What is he saying? What do yous think about that?

From where did God speak to Job? (6)

What did God say Job must do before God would admit that Job could save himself? (6-14)

What is God saying to Job? Why?

What did God say about the behemoth, according to these verses of this book? (15-24)

What do you think about that?

Discussion Questions
1. What is special about creation?
2. How are we able to answer God?
3. What does it mean to be challenged by God?

Job Chapter 39

**Job 39:2 Canst thou number the months ... - That is, as they wander in the wilderness, as they live in inaccessible crags and cliffs of the rocks, it is impossible for man to be acquainted with their habits as he can with those of the domestic animals.
***Job 39:3 They bow themselves - In order to bring forth their young ones. They cast out their sorrows - חבליהם  chebleyhem; the placenta, afterbirth, or umbilical cord. So this word has been understood.
Job 39:5 Sent - Who hath given him this disposition that he loves freedom, and hates that subjection which other creatures quietly endure? Loosed - Who keeps him from receiving the bands, and submitting to the service of man.
***Job 39:7 He scorneth the multitude - He is so swift that he cannot be run or hunted down. See the description in Job_39:5 (note).
Job 39:8 Mountains - He prefers that mean provision with his freedom, before the fattest pastures with servitude.
Job 39:9 Unicorn - It is disputed whether this be the Rhinoceros; or a kind of wild bull.
***Job 39:10 Canst thou bind the unicorn - in the furrow? - He will not plough, nor draw in the yoke with another? nor canst thou use him singly, to harrow the ground.
***Job 39:12 That he will bring home thy seed - Thou canst make no domestic nor agricultural use of him.

Job Chapter 40

Job 40:1 Answered - Having made a little pause to try what Job could answer. This is not said to be spoken out of the whirlwind, and therefore some think God said it in a still, small voice, which wrought more upon Job, (as upon Elijah) than the whirlwind did. Tho' Job had not spoken any thing, yet God is said to answer him. For he knows mens thoughts, and can return a fit answer to their silence.
Job 40:2 Reproveth - That boldly censureth his ways or works; it is at his peril.
*Job 40:3 Then Job answered the Lord,.... Finding that he was obliged to answer, he did, but with some reluctance:  and said; as follows:
***Job 40:4 Behold, I am vile - I acknowledge my inward defilement. I cannot answer thee. I will lay mine hand upon my mouth - I cannot excuse myself, and I must be dumb before thee.
Job 40:5 Answer - Speak again; I will contend no more with thee. Twice - Often, the definite number being used indefinitely.
Job 40:6 Whirlwind - Which was renewed when God renewed his charge upon Job, whom he intended to humble more throughly.
*Job 40:7 Gird up thy loins now like a man: I will demand of thee, and,  declare thou unto me,.... And prepare to give an answer to what should be demanded of him. The same way of speaking is used in Job_38:3; See Gill on Job_38:3.
***Job 40:9 Hast thou an arm like God? - Every word, from this to the end of Job_40:14, has a wonderful tendency to humble the soul; and it is no wonder that at the conclusion of these sayings Job fell in the dust confounded, and ascribed righteousness to his Maker.
Job 40:10 Deck - Seeing thou makest thyself equal, yea, superior to me, take to thyself thy great power, come and sit in my throne, and display thy Divine perfections in the sight of the world.
**Job 40:12 And tread down the wicked in their place - Even in the very place where they are, crush them to the dust, as God can. It is implied that God was able to do this, and he appeals to it as a proof of his power.
Job 40:13 Hide - Kill every one of them at one blow. Bind - Condemn or destroy them. He alludes to the manner of covering the faces of condemned persons, and of dead men. In secret - In a secret place, bury them in their graves.
**Job 40:14 Then will I also confess unto thee ... - If you can do all this, it will be full proof that you can save yourself, and that you do not need the divine interposition. If he could do all this, then it might be admitted that he was qualified to pronounce a judgment on the divine counsels and dealings. He would then show that he had qualifications for conducting the affairs of the universe.
Job 40:15 Behemoth - Very learned men take the leviathan to be the crocodile, and the behemoth to be the river - horse, which may fitly be joined with the crocodile, both being well known to Joband his friends, as being frequent in the adjacent parts, both amphibious, living and preying both in the water and upon the land. And both creatures of great bulk and strength. Made - As I made thee. Grass - The river - horse comes out of the river upon the land to feed upon corn, and hay, or grass, as an ox doth, to whom also he is not unlike in the form of his head and feet, and in the bigness of his body, whence the Italians call him, the sea – ox.
***Job 40:16 His strength is in his loins - This refers to his great agility, notwithstanding his bulk; by the strength of his loins he was able to take vast springs, and make astonishing bounds.
***Job 40:17 He moveth his tail like a cedar - Therefore it was neither the elephant, who has a tail like that of the hog, nor the hippopotamus, whose tail is only about a foot long. The sinews of his stones - I translate with Mr. Good, and for the same reasons, the sinews of his haunches, which is still more characteristic; as the animal must have excelled in leaping.
***Job 40:18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass-bars of iron - The tusk I have mentioned above is uncommonly hard, solid, and weighty for its size.
Job 40:19 The chief - He is one of the chief of God's works, in regard of its great bulk and strength.
Job 40:20 Mountains - Though he lives most in the water, yet he often fetches his food from the land, and from the mountains or hills, which are nigh the river Nile. Play - They not only feed securely, but sport themselves by him, being taught by experience that he is gentle and harmless.
***Job 40:21 He lieth under the shady trees - This and the following verses refer to certain habits of the behemoth, with which we are and must be unacquainted,
Job 40:22 Brook - Or, of the Nile, of which this word is often used in scripture. His constant residence is in or near this river, or the willows that grow by it.
Job 40:23 River - A great quantity of water, hyperbolically called a river. Hasteth not - He drinks not with fear and caution; but such is his courage, that he fears no enemy either by water or by land. He drinks as if he designed, to drink up the whole river. He mentions Jordan, as a river well known, in and nigh unto Job's land.
Job 40:24 Sight - Can any man take him in his eyes? Openly and by force? Surely not. His strength is too great for man to overcome: and therefore men are forced to use wiles and engines to catch him.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clark’s Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Job 38:1-41

Job 38:1-41

1. Verses 1-41 Who answers Job in this chapter? (1-3) Why now?

What did the Lord tell Job to brace himself for in verse three? (3)

What do you think about that?

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the earth? (4-21)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning weather? (22-30, 34-38)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the stars? (31-33)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the animals? (39-41)

What is the focus of the Lord’s first round of questions to Job in these verses? (4-41)

What is He telling Job? Why?

What do the Lord’s questions reveal about Himself in these verses? (1-39)

Discussion Questions
1. When will God speak?
2. What does God say?
3. What will He reveal?

***Job 38:1 The Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind - It is not סופה  suphah, as in the preceding chapter, Job_37:9; but סורה  searah, which signifies something turbulent, tumultuous, or violently agitated; and here may signify what we call a tempest, and was intended to fill Job’s mind with solemnity, and an awful sense of the majesty of God. The Chaldee has, a whirlwind of grief, making the whole rather allegorical than real; impressing the scene on Job’s imagination.
Job 38:2 Counsel - God's counsel. For the great matter of the dispute between Job and his friends, was concerning God's counsel and providence in afflicting Job; which Job had endeavoured to obscure and misrepresent. This first word which God spoke, struck Job to the heart. This he repeats and echoes to, Job_42:3, as the arrow that stuck fast in him.
*Job 38:3 Gird up now thy loins like a man,.... Like a man of valour that girds on his harness for battle: Job is bid to prepare for the controversy the Lord was entering into with him; and bring forth his strong reasons and most powerful arguments in his own defence. The allusion is to the custom in the eastern countries, where they wore long garments, to gird them about their loins, when they engaged in work or war. Job had blustered what he would do, and now he is dared to it; see Job_23:4;  for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me; put questions to him, to which he required a direct and positive answer. Jehovah takes the part of the opponent in this dispute, and gives that of the respondent to Job; since Job himself had put it to his option which to take, Job_13:22.
***Job 38:4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? - Thou hast a limited and derived being; thou art only of yesterday; what canst thou know? Didst thou see me create the world?
Job 38:5 Measures - Who hath prescribed how long and broad and deep it should be. Line - the measuring line to regulate all its dimensions.
***Job 38:6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? - How does it continue to revolve in the immensity of space? What supports it? Has it foundations like a building, and is it fastened with a key-stone, to keep the mighty fabric in union?
Job 38:12 Morning - Didst thou create the sun, and appoint the order and succession of day and night. Since - Since thou wast born: this work was done long before thou wast born. To know - To observe the punctual time when, and the point of the heavens where it should arise; which varies every day.
Job 38:13 That - That this morning light should in a moment spread itself, from one end of the hemisphere to the other. Shaken - From the face of the earth. And this effect the morning - light hath upon the wicked, because it discovers them, whereas darkness hides them; and because it brings them to condign punishment, the morning being the usual time for executing judgment.
***Job 38:17 Have the gates of death been opened unto thee? - Dost thou know in what the article of death consists? This is as inexplicable as the question, What is animal life? The doors of the shallow of death? - צלמות  tsalmaveth, the intermediate state, the openings into the place of separate spirits. Here two places are distinguished: מות  maveth, death, and צלמות  tsalmaveth, the shadow of death. It will not do to say, death is the privation of life, for what then would be the shadow of that privation?
Job 38:18 Breadth - The whole compass and all the parts of it?
Job 38:28 Father - Is there any man that can beget or produce rain at his pleasure?
**Job 38:29 Out of whose womb came the ice? - That is, who has caused or produced it? The idea is, that it was not by any human agency, or in any known way by which living beings were propagated. And the hoary frost of heaven - Which seems to fall from heaven. The sense is, that it is caused wholly by God; see the notes at Job_37:10.
Job 38:31 Bind - Restrain or hinder them. Pleiades - The seven stars, which bring in the spring. Bands - By which it binds up the air and earth, by bringing storms of rain and hail or frost and snow. Orion - This constellation rises in November, and brings in winter. Both summer and winter will have their course? God indeed can change them when he pleases, can make the spring cold, and so bind the influences of Pleiades, and the winter warm, and so loose the bands of Orion; but we cannot.
***Job 38:32 Mazzaroth in his season? - This is generally understood to mean the signs of the zodiac. מזרות  Mazzaroth, according to Parkhurst, comes from מזר  mazar, to corrupt; and he supposes it to mean that pestilential wind in Arabia, called simoom, the season of which is the summer heats.
Job 38:33 Ordinances - The laws which are firmly established concerning their order, motion, or rest, and their powerful influences upon this lower world. Didst thou give these laws? Or dost thou perfectly know them? Canst thou - Manage and over rule their influences.
***Job 38:34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds - Canst thou produce lightning and thunder, that water may be formed, and poured down upon the earth? Thunder is called קלות  koloth, voices; for it is considered the voice of God: here then Job’s voice, קולך  kolecha, is opposed to the voice of Jehovah!
Job 38:38 Mire - By reason of much rain.
***Job 38:39 Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion? - Rather the lioness, or strong lion. Hast thou his instinct? Dost thou know the habits and haunts of such animals as he seeks for his food? Thou hast neither his strength, his instinct nor his cunning. In the best Hebrew Bibles, the thirty-ninth chapter begins with this verse, and begins properly, as a new subject now commences, relating to the natural history of the earth, or the animal kingdom; as the preceding chapter does to astronomy and meteorology.
**Job 38:40 When they couch in their dens - For the purpose of springing upon their prey. And abide in the covert to lie in wait? - The usual posture of the lion when he seeks his prey. He places himself in some unobserved position in a dense thicket, or crouches upon the ground so as not to be seen, and then springs suddenly upon his victim. The common method of the lion in taking his prey is to spring or throw himself upon it from the place of his ambush, with one vast bound and to inflict the mortal blow with one stroke of his paw. If he misses his aim, however, he seldom attempts another spring at the same object, but deliberately returns to the thicket in which he lay in concealment. See the habits of the lion illustrated in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, “Mazology.”
Job 38:41 Raven - Having mentioned the noblest of brute creatures, he now mentions one of the most contemptible; to shew the care of God's providence over all creatures, both great and small. Their young ones are so soon forsaken by their dams, that if God did not provide for them in a more than ordinary manner, they would be starved to death. And will he that provides for the young ravens, fail to provide for his own children.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Job 37:1-24

Job 37:1-24

What causes Elihu's heart to tremble and leap? (1) What is he saying?

How did Elihu describe the power of God, according to these verses? (1-13)

How does this reflect back to verse 1? What do you think about that?

What did Elihu ask Job to do in verse 14? (14) Why?

What series of questions did Elihu ask Job in these verses of this book? (14-20)

What was the purpose for all these questions?

What do you think Elihu was trying do?

What advice did Elihu conclude his speech with in these verses of this book? (21-24)

Why can’t we find out God? (23-24) What does this mean?

Discussion Questions
1. How does God effect us?
2. Describe God's power?
3. What does it mean to seek God?

***Job 37:1 My heart trembleth - This is what the Septuagint has anticipated; see under Job 36:28 (note). A proper consideration of God’s majesty in the thunder and lightning is enough to appall the stoutest heart, confound the wisest mind, and fill all with humility and devotion. This, to the middle of Job 37:5, should be added to the preceding chapter, as it is a continuation of the account of the thunder and lightning given at the conclusion of that chapter. Our present division is as absurd as it is unfortunate.
*Job 37:2 Hear attentively the noise of his voice,.... Of the voice of God in the clouds; and of thunder, which is his voice, Job 40:9. Elihu being affected with it himself, exhorts the company about him to hearken and listen to it, and learn something from it; and the sound that goeth out of his mouth: as the former clause may have respect to loud thunder, a more violent crack or clap of it; so this may intend some lesser whispers and murmurs of it at a distance; or a rumbling noise in the clouds before they burst; since the word is sometimes used for private meditation. Now the voice of God, whether in his works of nature, or in the dispensations of his providence, or in his word; whether in the thunder of the law, or in the still sound of the Gospel, is to be attentively hearkened to; because it is the voice of God, the voice of the God of glory, majestic and powerful, and is attended with various effects; of which see Psa 29:3.
**Job 37:3 He directeth it under the whole heaven - It is under the control of God, and he directs it where he pleases. It is not confined to one spot, but seems to be complaining from every part of the heavens. And his lightning - Margin, as in Hebrew “light.” There can be no doubt that the lightning is intended. Unto the ends of the earth - Margin, as in Hebrew “wings.” The word wings is given to the earth from the idea of its being spread out or expanded like the wings of a bird; compare Job 38:13; Eze 7:2. The earth was spoken of as an expanse or plain that had corners or boundaries (see Isa 11:12, note; Isa 24:16, note; Isa 42:5, note), and the meaning here is, that God spread the lightning at pleasure over the whole of that vast expanse.
Job 37:4 After - After the lightning, which is seen before the thunder is hard. Them - The lightnings spoken of in the beginning of the verse.
Job 37:6 Strength - Those storms of rain which come with great force and irresistible violence.
Job 37:7 Sealeth - By these snows and rains he drives men out of the fields, and seals or binds up their hands from their work. That - They may seriously contemplate on these, and other great and glorious works of God.
**Job 37:8 Then the beasts go into dens - In the winter. This fact appears to have been early observed, that in the season of cold the wild animals withdrew into caves, and that many of them became torpid. This fact Elihu adverts to as an illustration of the wisdom and greatness of God. The proof of his superintending care was seen in the fact that they withdrew from the cold in which they would perish, and that provision is made for their continuance in life at a time when they cannot obtain the food by which they ordinarily subsist. In that torpid and inactive state, they need little food, and remain often for months with almost no nourishment.
Job 37:10 The waters - The waters which had freely spread themselves before, are congealed and bound up in crystal fetters.
***Job 37:11 By watering he wearieth the thick cloud - Perhaps it would be better to say, The brightness ברי beri, dissipates the cloud; or, if we follow our version, By watering the earth he wearieth, wearieth out or emptieth, the thick cloud - causes it to pour down all its contents upon the earth, that they may cause it to bring forth and bud. The Vulgate understood it differently: Frumentum desiderat nubes, et nubes spargunt lumen suum. “The grain desireth the clouds; and the clouds scatter abroad their light.”
Job 37:12 Turned - The clouds are carried about to this or that place. Not by chance (though nothing seems to be more casual than the motions of the clouds) but by his order and governance.
Job 37:13 Correction - To scourge or correct men by immoderate showers. Earth - The whole earth, which is said to be the Lord's, Psa 24:1, Psa 50:12, and so this may denote a general judgment by excessive rains inflicted upon the earth, and all its inhabitants, even the universal deluge, which came in great measure out of the clouds. Mercy - For the benefit of mankind and for the cooling of the air and improving the fruits of the earth.
**Job 37:14 Hearken unto this, O Job - That is, to the lesson which such events are fitted to convey respecting God. Stand still - In a posture of reverence and attention. The object is to secure a calm contemplation of the works of God, so that the mind might be filled with suitable reverence for him.
Job 37:16 Balancings - How God doth as it were weigh the clouds in balances, so that although they are full of water, yet they are kept up by the thin air.
Job 37:17 Quieteth - The air about the earth. From the south - By the sun's coming into the southern parts, which makes the air quiet and warm.
Job 37:19 Teach us - If thou canst. Say unto him - Of these things. Order - To maintain discourse with him, both because of the darkness of the matter, God's counsels being a great depth; and because of the darkness of our minds.
Job 37:20 Shall - I send a challenge to God, or a message that I am ready to debate with him concerning his proceedings? Speak - If a man should be so bold to enter the lists with God. Swallowed up - With the sense of his infinite majesty.
***Job 37:21 And now men see not the bright light - Mr. Good gives the sense clearer: -“Even now we cannot look at the light When it is resplendent in the heavens. And a wind from the north hath passed along and cleared them.” Elihu seems to refer to the insufferable brightness of the sun. Can any man look at the sun shining in his strength, when a clear and strong wind has purged the sky from clouds and vapours? Much less can any gaze on the majesty of God. Every creature must sink before him. What execrably dangerous folly in man to attempt to arraign His conduct!
Job 37:22 North - From the northern winds which scatter the clouds, and clear the sky. Elihu concludes with some short, but great sayings, concerning the glory of God. He speaks abruptly and in haste, because it should seem, he perceived God was approaching, and presumed he was about to take the work into his own hands.
Job 37:23 Find - We cannot comprehend him: his power, wisdom, justice, and his counsels proceeding from them are past our finding out. Power - Therefore as he doth not need any unrighteous action to advance himself, so he cannot do it, because all such things are acts of weakness. Judgment - In the just administration of judgment, he never did, nor can exercise that power unjustly, as Job seemed to insinuate. Afflict - Without just cause.
Job 37:24 Fear - Fear or reverence him, and humbly submit to him, and not presume to quarrel or dispute with him. Wise of heart - Wise in their own eyes.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley