Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Job 38:1-41

Job 38:1-41

1. Verses 1-41 Who answers Job in this chapter? (1-3) Why now?

What did the Lord tell Job to brace himself for in verse three? (3)

What do you think about that?

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the earth? (4-21)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning weather? (22-30, 34-38)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the stars? (31-33)

What are some questions that God asked Job concerning the animals? (39-41)

What is the focus of the Lord’s first round of questions to Job in these verses? (4-41)

What is He telling Job? Why?

What do the Lord’s questions reveal about Himself in these verses? (1-39)

Discussion Questions
1. When will God speak?
2. What does God say?
3. What will He reveal?

***Job 38:1 The Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind - It is not סופה  suphah, as in the preceding chapter, Job_37:9; but סורה  searah, which signifies something turbulent, tumultuous, or violently agitated; and here may signify what we call a tempest, and was intended to fill Job’s mind with solemnity, and an awful sense of the majesty of God. The Chaldee has, a whirlwind of grief, making the whole rather allegorical than real; impressing the scene on Job’s imagination.
Job 38:2 Counsel - God's counsel. For the great matter of the dispute between Job and his friends, was concerning God's counsel and providence in afflicting Job; which Job had endeavoured to obscure and misrepresent. This first word which God spoke, struck Job to the heart. This he repeats and echoes to, Job_42:3, as the arrow that stuck fast in him.
*Job 38:3 Gird up now thy loins like a man,.... Like a man of valour that girds on his harness for battle: Job is bid to prepare for the controversy the Lord was entering into with him; and bring forth his strong reasons and most powerful arguments in his own defence. The allusion is to the custom in the eastern countries, where they wore long garments, to gird them about their loins, when they engaged in work or war. Job had blustered what he would do, and now he is dared to it; see Job_23:4;  for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me; put questions to him, to which he required a direct and positive answer. Jehovah takes the part of the opponent in this dispute, and gives that of the respondent to Job; since Job himself had put it to his option which to take, Job_13:22.
***Job 38:4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? - Thou hast a limited and derived being; thou art only of yesterday; what canst thou know? Didst thou see me create the world?
Job 38:5 Measures - Who hath prescribed how long and broad and deep it should be. Line - the measuring line to regulate all its dimensions.
***Job 38:6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? - How does it continue to revolve in the immensity of space? What supports it? Has it foundations like a building, and is it fastened with a key-stone, to keep the mighty fabric in union?
Job 38:12 Morning - Didst thou create the sun, and appoint the order and succession of day and night. Since - Since thou wast born: this work was done long before thou wast born. To know - To observe the punctual time when, and the point of the heavens where it should arise; which varies every day.
Job 38:13 That - That this morning light should in a moment spread itself, from one end of the hemisphere to the other. Shaken - From the face of the earth. And this effect the morning - light hath upon the wicked, because it discovers them, whereas darkness hides them; and because it brings them to condign punishment, the morning being the usual time for executing judgment.
***Job 38:17 Have the gates of death been opened unto thee? - Dost thou know in what the article of death consists? This is as inexplicable as the question, What is animal life? The doors of the shallow of death? - צלמות  tsalmaveth, the intermediate state, the openings into the place of separate spirits. Here two places are distinguished: מות  maveth, death, and צלמות  tsalmaveth, the shadow of death. It will not do to say, death is the privation of life, for what then would be the shadow of that privation?
Job 38:18 Breadth - The whole compass and all the parts of it?
Job 38:28 Father - Is there any man that can beget or produce rain at his pleasure?
**Job 38:29 Out of whose womb came the ice? - That is, who has caused or produced it? The idea is, that it was not by any human agency, or in any known way by which living beings were propagated. And the hoary frost of heaven - Which seems to fall from heaven. The sense is, that it is caused wholly by God; see the notes at Job_37:10.
Job 38:31 Bind - Restrain or hinder them. Pleiades - The seven stars, which bring in the spring. Bands - By which it binds up the air and earth, by bringing storms of rain and hail or frost and snow. Orion - This constellation rises in November, and brings in winter. Both summer and winter will have their course? God indeed can change them when he pleases, can make the spring cold, and so bind the influences of Pleiades, and the winter warm, and so loose the bands of Orion; but we cannot.
***Job 38:32 Mazzaroth in his season? - This is generally understood to mean the signs of the zodiac. מזרות  Mazzaroth, according to Parkhurst, comes from מזר  mazar, to corrupt; and he supposes it to mean that pestilential wind in Arabia, called simoom, the season of which is the summer heats.
Job 38:33 Ordinances - The laws which are firmly established concerning their order, motion, or rest, and their powerful influences upon this lower world. Didst thou give these laws? Or dost thou perfectly know them? Canst thou - Manage and over rule their influences.
***Job 38:34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds - Canst thou produce lightning and thunder, that water may be formed, and poured down upon the earth? Thunder is called קלות  koloth, voices; for it is considered the voice of God: here then Job’s voice, קולך  kolecha, is opposed to the voice of Jehovah!
Job 38:38 Mire - By reason of much rain.
***Job 38:39 Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion? - Rather the lioness, or strong lion. Hast thou his instinct? Dost thou know the habits and haunts of such animals as he seeks for his food? Thou hast neither his strength, his instinct nor his cunning. In the best Hebrew Bibles, the thirty-ninth chapter begins with this verse, and begins properly, as a new subject now commences, relating to the natural history of the earth, or the animal kingdom; as the preceding chapter does to astronomy and meteorology.
**Job 38:40 When they couch in their dens - For the purpose of springing upon their prey. And abide in the covert to lie in wait? - The usual posture of the lion when he seeks his prey. He places himself in some unobserved position in a dense thicket, or crouches upon the ground so as not to be seen, and then springs suddenly upon his victim. The common method of the lion in taking his prey is to spring or throw himself upon it from the place of his ambush, with one vast bound and to inflict the mortal blow with one stroke of his paw. If he misses his aim, however, he seldom attempts another spring at the same object, but deliberately returns to the thicket in which he lay in concealment. See the habits of the lion illustrated in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, “Mazology.”
Job 38:41 Raven - Having mentioned the noblest of brute creatures, he now mentions one of the most contemptible; to shew the care of God's providence over all creatures, both great and small. Their young ones are so soon forsaken by their dams, that if God did not provide for them in a more than ordinary manner, they would be starved to death. And will he that provides for the young ravens, fail to provide for his own children.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Job 37:1-24

Job 37:1-24

What causes Elihu's heart to tremble and leap? (1) What is he saying?

How did Elihu describe the power of God, according to these verses? (1-13)

How does this reflect back to verse 1? What do you think about that?

What did Elihu ask Job to do in verse 14? (14) Why?

What series of questions did Elihu ask Job in these verses of this book? (14-20)

What was the purpose for all these questions?

What do you think Elihu was trying do?

What advice did Elihu conclude his speech with in these verses of this book? (21-24)

Why can’t we find out God? (23-24) What does this mean?

Discussion Questions
1. How does God effect us?
2. Describe God's power?
3. What does it mean to seek God?

***Job 37:1 My heart trembleth - This is what the Septuagint has anticipated; see under Job 36:28 (note). A proper consideration of God’s majesty in the thunder and lightning is enough to appall the stoutest heart, confound the wisest mind, and fill all with humility and devotion. This, to the middle of Job 37:5, should be added to the preceding chapter, as it is a continuation of the account of the thunder and lightning given at the conclusion of that chapter. Our present division is as absurd as it is unfortunate.
*Job 37:2 Hear attentively the noise of his voice,.... Of the voice of God in the clouds; and of thunder, which is his voice, Job 40:9. Elihu being affected with it himself, exhorts the company about him to hearken and listen to it, and learn something from it; and the sound that goeth out of his mouth: as the former clause may have respect to loud thunder, a more violent crack or clap of it; so this may intend some lesser whispers and murmurs of it at a distance; or a rumbling noise in the clouds before they burst; since the word is sometimes used for private meditation. Now the voice of God, whether in his works of nature, or in the dispensations of his providence, or in his word; whether in the thunder of the law, or in the still sound of the Gospel, is to be attentively hearkened to; because it is the voice of God, the voice of the God of glory, majestic and powerful, and is attended with various effects; of which see Psa 29:3.
**Job 37:3 He directeth it under the whole heaven - It is under the control of God, and he directs it where he pleases. It is not confined to one spot, but seems to be complaining from every part of the heavens. And his lightning - Margin, as in Hebrew “light.” There can be no doubt that the lightning is intended. Unto the ends of the earth - Margin, as in Hebrew “wings.” The word wings is given to the earth from the idea of its being spread out or expanded like the wings of a bird; compare Job 38:13; Eze 7:2. The earth was spoken of as an expanse or plain that had corners or boundaries (see Isa 11:12, note; Isa 24:16, note; Isa 42:5, note), and the meaning here is, that God spread the lightning at pleasure over the whole of that vast expanse.
Job 37:4 After - After the lightning, which is seen before the thunder is hard. Them - The lightnings spoken of in the beginning of the verse.
Job 37:6 Strength - Those storms of rain which come with great force and irresistible violence.
Job 37:7 Sealeth - By these snows and rains he drives men out of the fields, and seals or binds up their hands from their work. That - They may seriously contemplate on these, and other great and glorious works of God.
**Job 37:8 Then the beasts go into dens - In the winter. This fact appears to have been early observed, that in the season of cold the wild animals withdrew into caves, and that many of them became torpid. This fact Elihu adverts to as an illustration of the wisdom and greatness of God. The proof of his superintending care was seen in the fact that they withdrew from the cold in which they would perish, and that provision is made for their continuance in life at a time when they cannot obtain the food by which they ordinarily subsist. In that torpid and inactive state, they need little food, and remain often for months with almost no nourishment.
Job 37:10 The waters - The waters which had freely spread themselves before, are congealed and bound up in crystal fetters.
***Job 37:11 By watering he wearieth the thick cloud - Perhaps it would be better to say, The brightness ברי beri, dissipates the cloud; or, if we follow our version, By watering the earth he wearieth, wearieth out or emptieth, the thick cloud - causes it to pour down all its contents upon the earth, that they may cause it to bring forth and bud. The Vulgate understood it differently: Frumentum desiderat nubes, et nubes spargunt lumen suum. “The grain desireth the clouds; and the clouds scatter abroad their light.”
Job 37:12 Turned - The clouds are carried about to this or that place. Not by chance (though nothing seems to be more casual than the motions of the clouds) but by his order and governance.
Job 37:13 Correction - To scourge or correct men by immoderate showers. Earth - The whole earth, which is said to be the Lord's, Psa 24:1, Psa 50:12, and so this may denote a general judgment by excessive rains inflicted upon the earth, and all its inhabitants, even the universal deluge, which came in great measure out of the clouds. Mercy - For the benefit of mankind and for the cooling of the air and improving the fruits of the earth.
**Job 37:14 Hearken unto this, O Job - That is, to the lesson which such events are fitted to convey respecting God. Stand still - In a posture of reverence and attention. The object is to secure a calm contemplation of the works of God, so that the mind might be filled with suitable reverence for him.
Job 37:16 Balancings - How God doth as it were weigh the clouds in balances, so that although they are full of water, yet they are kept up by the thin air.
Job 37:17 Quieteth - The air about the earth. From the south - By the sun's coming into the southern parts, which makes the air quiet and warm.
Job 37:19 Teach us - If thou canst. Say unto him - Of these things. Order - To maintain discourse with him, both because of the darkness of the matter, God's counsels being a great depth; and because of the darkness of our minds.
Job 37:20 Shall - I send a challenge to God, or a message that I am ready to debate with him concerning his proceedings? Speak - If a man should be so bold to enter the lists with God. Swallowed up - With the sense of his infinite majesty.
***Job 37:21 And now men see not the bright light - Mr. Good gives the sense clearer: -“Even now we cannot look at the light When it is resplendent in the heavens. And a wind from the north hath passed along and cleared them.” Elihu seems to refer to the insufferable brightness of the sun. Can any man look at the sun shining in his strength, when a clear and strong wind has purged the sky from clouds and vapours? Much less can any gaze on the majesty of God. Every creature must sink before him. What execrably dangerous folly in man to attempt to arraign His conduct!
Job 37:22 North - From the northern winds which scatter the clouds, and clear the sky. Elihu concludes with some short, but great sayings, concerning the glory of God. He speaks abruptly and in haste, because it should seem, he perceived God was approaching, and presumed he was about to take the work into his own hands.
Job 37:23 Find - We cannot comprehend him: his power, wisdom, justice, and his counsels proceeding from them are past our finding out. Power - Therefore as he doth not need any unrighteous action to advance himself, so he cannot do it, because all such things are acts of weakness. Judgment - In the just administration of judgment, he never did, nor can exercise that power unjustly, as Job seemed to insinuate. Afflict - Without just cause.
Job 37:24 Fear - Fear or reverence him, and humbly submit to him, and not presume to quarrel or dispute with him. Wise of heart - Wise in their own eyes.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Job 35:1-16 to Job 36:1-33

Job 35:1-16 to Job 36:1-33

Job Chapter 35

What did Elihu ask if it is right to say? (2) What is he saying?

Who else was Elihu talking to in this chapter? (4) Why?

According to Elihu, how does a person’s sin or righteousness affect God in these verses? (1-8)

What does he mean? What do you think about that?

Why did Elihu say God does not always answer people who cry out to him in these verses? (9-15)

What did Elihu say Job did when he opened his mouth? (16) What does that mean?

Job Chapter 36

According to Elihu, how does God treat the wicked and the righteous in these verses? (1-15)

What does Elihu say happens to those who obey and serve God? (11)

What happens to those that don't obey God? (12)

What do you think about that?

How did Elihu describe the greatness of God in these verses of this book? (22-33)

What should we remember to do? (24) What does that mean?

Discussion Questions
1. What is right? Explain your answer
2. How does sin effect us?
3. What happens when we commit to God?

**Job 35:1 Elihu spake - Hebrew, ויען  vaya‛an “And he answered”; the word “answer” being used, as it is often in the Scriptures, to denote the commencement of a discourse. We may suppose that Elihu had paused at the close of his second discourse, possibly with a view to see whether there was any disposition to reply.
Job 35:2 Thou saidst - Not that Job said this in express terms, but he said those things from which this might seem to follow, as that God had punished him more than he deserved.
***Job 35:3 What advantage will it be unto thee? - As if he had said to God, “My righteousness cannot profit thee, nor do I find that it is of any benefit to myself.” Or perhaps Elihu makes here a general assertion, which he afterwards endeavors to exemplify: Thou hast been reasoning how it may profit thee, and thou hast said, “What profit shall I have in righteousness more than in sin?”
***Job 35:4 I will answer thee - I will show thee the evil of a sinful way, and the benefit of righteousness; and supply what thy friends have omitted in their discourses with thee.
Job 35:9 Cry - Thus one man's wickedness may hurt another.
Job 35:15 Because - Because Job doth not acknowledge God's justice and his own sins. He - God. Anger - Hath laid grievous afflictions upon him. He - Job is not sensible of it, so as to be humbled under God's hand.
*Job 35:16 Therefore doth Job open his mouth in vain,.... In uttering such unbecoming expressions, observed, and refuted, in his loud complaints of God, and of his dealings with him, and in defence of himself;  he multiplieth words without knowledge; both against God and in answer to others; being in a great measure ignorant of the nature and number of his sins, and of his afflictions; and of the end of God in them, and of the right he had to lay them upon him; us well as of his duty patiently to bear them, and trust in God, and wait his own time for deliverance out of them; and or the truth of this he was afterwards convinced, and acknowledged it, Job_42:3.

*Job 36:1 Elihu also proceeded, and said. Or "added" (f) what follows to his former discourses; pausing a while to see whether Job would make any reply to what he had already said; but perceiving he had no inclination to do it, and having more upon his mind to deliver, went on with his discourse.
***Job 36:2 That I have yet to speak on God’s behalf - I have other proofs to allege in behalf of God’s justice and providence.
Job 36:4 He, &c. - Thou hast to do with a God of perfect knowledge, by whom all thy words and actions are weighed.
Job 36:6 But - He will certainly in his time deliver his oppressed ones.
***Job 36:8 And if they be bound in fetters - These are means which God uses, not of punishment, but of correction.
***Job 36:11 If they obey and serve him - There may appear in the course of Providence to be some exceptions to this general rule; but it is most true, that this is literally or spiritually fulfilled to all the genuine followers of God. Every man is happy, in whatsoever circumstances, whose heart is unreservedly dedicated to his Maker.
Job 36:13 Cry not - Unto God for help. Bindeth - With the cords of affliction.
***Job 36:22 God exalteth by his power - He has brought thee low, but he can raise thee up. Thou art not yet out of the reach of his mercy. Thy affliction is a proof that he acts towards thee as a merciful Parent. He knows what is best to be done; he teaches thee how thou shouldst suffer and improve. Why sin against his kindness? Who can teach like him?
***Job 36:23 Who hath enjoined him his way - Has God taken instructions from any man how he shall govern the world? Thou hast wrought iniquity? - Who can prove, in the whole compass of the creation, that there is one thing imperfect, superabundant, or out of its place? Who can show that there is, in the course of the Divine providence, one unrighteous, cruel, or unwise act? All the cunning and wickedness of man have never been able to find out the smallest flaw in the work of God.
Job 36:24 Remember - Call to mind this thy duty. Magnify - Every work which he doth; do not condemn any of his providential works, but adore them as done with admirable wisdom, and justice. Behold - With admiration and astonishment.
Job 36:26 Neither - He is eternal, as in his being, so in all his counsels; which therefore must be infinitely above the comprehension of short - lived men.

* Gills Commentaries     ** Barnes Commentaries     *** Clarke's Commentaries     
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Job 33:1-33 to Job 34:1-37

Job 33:1-33 to Job 34:1-37

Job Chapter 33

What authority did Elihu claim to speak by in these verses of this book? (1-7)

Why would he think that?

What did Elihu say he heard Job say? (8-11)

What different ways does God speak to people in, according to Elihu in these verses? (12-22)

What do you think about that?

How does God turn people from the pit, according to these verses of this book? (23-30) Is this true?

Job Chapter 34

How did Elihu summarize Job’s speeches in these verses of this book? (5-9)

With whom does Elihu accuse Job of walking? (8) What is he saying?

What did Elihu say about God in these verses of this book? (10-30)

How did Elihu describe Job’s reply to God in these verses of this book? (31-37)

What do you think Elihu thought of this?

What did he say that Job had added to his sin? (37)

What do you think about that?

Discussion Questions
1. Where do we get authority to speak? Explain
2. How does God speak to His people?
3. What is the sin of rebellion?

**Job 33:1 Wherefore, Job, I pray thee - In the next chapter he addresses the three friends of Job. This is addressed particularly to him. My speeches - Hebrew, “my words” - מלה  millâh. This is the usual word in the Aramaen languages to express a saying or discourse, though in Hebrew it is only a poetic form. The meaning is, not that he would address separate speeches, or distinct discourses, to Job, but that he called on him to attend to what he had to say.
Job 33:3 My words - I will not speak passionately or partially, but from a sincere desire to do thee good. Clearly - What I speak will be plain, not hard to be understood.
Job 33:4 Life - I am thy fellow creature, and am ready to discourse with thee upon even terms, according to thy desire.
Job 33:6 Behold - I will plead with thee in God's name and stead, which thou hast often wished, and I am God's creature like thyself.
***Job 33:7 My terror shall not make thee afraid - This is an allusion to what Job had said, Job_9:34 : “Let him take his rod away from me, and let not his fear terrify me.” Being thy equal, no fear can impose upon thee so far as to overawe thee; so that thou shouldst not be able to conduct thy own defense. We are on equal terms; now prepare to defend thyself.
Job 33:11 Marketh - He narrowly prys into all my actions, that he may find matter against me.
***Job 33:12 In this thou art not just - Thou hast laid charges against God’s dealings, but thou hast not been able to justify those charges; and were there nothing else against thee, these irreverent speeches are so many proofs that thou art not clear in the sight of God.
Job 33:13 He - Useth not to give an account to his creatures of the grounds and reasons of his judgments or dispensations as being the supreme governor of all persons and things, in whose will it becometh all men to acquiesce.
Job 33:16 Sealeth - He imprints those instructions upon their minds.
Job 33:17 Pride - And God by this means is said to hide pride from man, because by these glorious representations of his Divine majesty to man, he takes him off from the admiration of his own excellency, and brings him to a sight of his own weakness, and to an humble and ready submission to his will.
Job 33:22 The destroyers - The pangs of death, here called the destroyers, are just ready to seize him.
Job 33:24 He - God. A ransom - Although I might justly destroy him, yet I will spare him, for I have found out a way of ransoming sinners from death, which is the death of my son, the redeemer of the world, and with respect to which I will pardon them that repent and sue for mercy. Observe how God glories in the invention! I have found, I have found a ransom; a ransom for poor, undone sinners! I, even I am he that hath done it.
Job 33:28 Life - His life which was endangered, shall be restored and continued. Yea, farther, God shall Deliver his soul from going into the pit of hell: and his life shall see the light, all good, in the vision and fruition of God.

Job Chap. 34 
**Job 34:1 Furthermore, Elihu answered and said - That is, evidently, after a pause to see if Job had anything to reply. The word answered in the Scriptures often means “to begin a discourse,” though nothing had been said by others; see Job_3:2; Isa_14:10; Zec_1:10; Zec_3:4; Zec_4:11-12. Sometimes it is used with reference to a subject, meaning that one replied to what could be suggested on the opposite side. Here it maybe understood either in the general sense of beginning a discourse, or more probably as replying to the sentiments which Job had advanced in the debate with his friends.
Job 34:2 Ear - The ear, is put for the mind to which things are conveyed by it.
***Job 34:4 Let us choose to us judgment - Let us not seek the applause of men, nor contend for victory. Let our aim be to obtain correct views and notions of all things; and let us labor to find out what is good.
Job 34:7 Like water - Abundantly and greedily: who doth so break forth into scornful expressions, not only against his friends, but in some sort against God himself.
Job 34:9 He said - Not in express terms, but by consequence; because he said that good men were no less, nay, sometimes more miserable here than the wicked.
***Job 34:11 For the work of a man shall he render - God ever will do justice; the righteous shall never be forsaken, nor shall the wicked ultimately prosper.
**Job 34:21 For his eyes are upon the ways of man - None can escape from his notice; compare Psa_139:2-3.
***Job 34:24 He shall break in pieces - In multitudes of cases God depresses the proud, and raises up the humble and meek. Neither their strength nor number can afford them security.
Job 34:26 As - Because they are wicked men. In the open light - In publick view for their greater shame, and for the greater glory of his justice.
***Job 34:27 Because they turned back - This is the reason why he has dealt with them in judgment. They had departed from him in their hearts, their moral conduct, and their civil government. He is speaking of corrupt and tyrannical rulers. And they did not, would not, understand any of his ways.
Job 34:28 Cry of the poor - Their case is bad, who have the prayers and tears of the poor against them: for these will draw down vengeance sooner or later, on the heads of their oppressors.
Job 34:29 Whether - God can carry on his work either of mercy or justice, as irresistible upon an whole nation as upon one particular person.
Job 34:30 Reign not - May not continue his tyranny, lest the people be ensnared, lest the people should be longer kept in the the snares of oppression; God doth this to free poor oppressed people from the snares which ungodly men lay for them.
***Job 34:31 Surely it is meet to be said unto God - This is Elihu’s exhortation to Job: Humble thyself before God, and say, “I have suffered - I will not offend.”
Job 34:33 Should it be - Doth God need thy advice how to govern the world, and whom, and when to reward or punish? Refuse - To submit as is expressed, Job_34:32. Therefore - If thou canst say any thing for thyself, I am ready to hear thy defence.
Job 34:36 End - Throughly and exactly, 'till the cause be brought to an issue. Wicked men - On their behalf; he hath put arguments into their mouths against God and his providence.
Job 34:37 Addeth - He sinned before, by impatience under his afflictions, now he is grown obstinate, and instead of humbling himself for his sins, justifies himself, and accuses the blessed God. Clapped - Insulting and triumphing. Against God - In effect, though not directly.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke’s Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Job 31:1-40 to Job 32:1-22

Job 31:1-40 to Job 32:1-22

Job Chapter 31

With what did Job make a covenant? (1) What is he saying?

What do you think about that?

In what did Job want to be weighed? (6) Why?

What are some sins Job recognized deserved punishment if he had done them?

Why do you think he brought this up?

If Job had lifted his hand against the fatherless what punishment did he feel he deserved? (21-22)

What did Job wish God would do and Why, according to these verses? (1-40)

Based on the evidence Job supplied in his own defense, what kind of man was he in these verses? (1-40)

Job Chapter 32

Why did the three men cease to answer Job? (1)

Why was Elihu angry with Job? (2) What does this mean?

Why was Elihu angry with Job’s friends? (3-5) What is being said?

Why was Elihu at first afraid to give his opinion? (6-7)

What do great and aged men not necessarily possess? (9) What do you think about that?

Discus ion Questions
1. What does it mean to be on defense with the world around us?
2. When is a good time to give or not to give our opinion?
3.  How would someone know if we are wise?

Job 31:1 I made - So far have I been from any gross wickedness, that I have abstained from the least occasions and appearances of evil.
***Job 31:2 For what portion of God is there from above? - Though I have not, in this or in any other respect, wickedly departed from God, yet what reward have I received?
***Job 31:3 Is not destruction to the wicked - If I had been guilty of such secret hypocritical proceedings, professing faith in the true God while in eye and heart an idolater, would not such a worker of iniquity be distinguished by a strange and unheard-of punishment?
***Job 31:6 Let me be weighed in an even balance - Margin, him weigh me in balances of justice. That is, let him ascertain exactly my character, and treat me accordingly. If on trial it be found that I am guilty in this respect, I consent to be punished accordingly. Scales or balances are often used as emblematic of justice. Many suppose, however, that this verse is a parenthesis, and that the imprecation in Job_31:8, relates to Job_31:5, as well as to Job_31:7. But most probably the meaning is, that he consented to have his life tried in this respect in the most exact and rigid manner, and was willing to abide the result. A man may express such a consciousness of integrity in his dealings with others, without any improper self-reliance or boasting. It may be a simple fact of which he may be certain, that he has never meant to defraud any man.
***Job 31:11 For this is a heinous crime - Mr. Good translates, “For this would be a premeditated crime, And a profligacy of the understanding.” See also Job_31:28. That is, It would not only be a sin against the individuals more particularly concerned, but a sin of the first magnitude against society; and one of which the civil magistrate should take particular cognizance, and punish as justice requires.
Job 31:21 When - When I saw I could influence the judges to do what I pleased.
**Job 31:40 Let thistles grow; - Gen_3:18. Thistles are valueless; and Job is so confident of entire innocence in regard to this, that he says he would be willing, if he were guilty, to have his whole land overrun with noxious weeds. And cockle - Cockle is a well known herb that gets into wheat or other grain. It has a bluish flower, and small black seed, and is injurious because it tends to discolor the flour. It is not certain by any means, however, that this is intended here. The margin is, noisome weeds. The Hebrew word באשׁה  bo'shâh is from באשׁ  bâ'ash, “to have a bad smell, to stink,” and was given to the weed here referred to on that account, compare Isa_34:3. The cockle however, has no unpleasant odor, and the word here probably means noxious weeds. So it is rendered by Herder and by Noyes. The Septuagint has βάτος  batos, bramble; the Vulgate, spina, thorn; Prof. Lee, prunus sylvestris, “a bramble resembling the hawthorn;” Schultens, labrusca, wild vine. The words of Job are ended - That is, in the present speech or argument; his discussions with his friends are closed. He spoke afterward, as recorded in the subsequent chapters, but not in controversy with them. He had vindicated his character, sustained his positions, and they had nothing to reply. The remainder of the book is occupied mainly with the speech of Elihu, and with the solemn and sublime address which God himself makes.

Job 32:1 Because - So they said: but they could not answer him.
Job 32:2 The Buzite - Of the posterity of Buz, Nahor's son, Gen_22:21. Ram - Or, of Aram; for Ram and Aram are used promiscuously; compare 2Ki_8:28; 2Ch_22:5. His pedigree is thus particularly described, partly for his honour, as being both a wise and good man, and principally to evidence the truth of this history. He justified - Himself not without reflection upon God, as dealing severely with him, he took more care to maintain his own innocency, than God's glory. The word Elihu signifies, my God is he. They had all tried in vain to convince Job: but my God is he who both can and will do it.
*Job 32:4 Now Elihu had waited till Job had spoken,.... Made an end of speaking, until he had thus expressed himself, "the words of Job are ended", Job_31:40, and waited likewise until his three friends had said all they had to say, and which is here supposed and implied, as appears by what follows: because they were elder than he; it may be added, from the original text, "in", or "as two days" (l); they had lived longer in the world than he, and therefore did not take upon him to speak till they had done; he, as became a young man, was swift to hear, and slow to speak; that they were old men, appears from what Eliphaz says, Job_15:10.
*Job 32:5 When Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three men,.... That could be called an answer; nay, when he perceived they were quite nonplussed and silenced, though men of years and experience, and reputed wise and knowing:  then his wrath was kindled; his spirit was stirred up; his heart was hot within him; he burned with anger against those men; he was all on fire, as it were, and wanted to vent his resentment.
Job 32:6 Afraid - Of being thought forward and presumptuous.
***Job 32:9 Great men are not always wise - This is a true saying, which the experience of every age and every country increasingly verifies. And it is most certain that, in the case before us, the aged did not understand judgment; they had a great many wise and good sayings, which they had collected, but showed neither wisdom nor discretion in applying them.
***Job 32:16 When I had waited - I waited to hear if they had any thing to reply to Job; and when I found them in effect speechless, then I ventured to come forward.
**Job 32:20 I will speak, that I may be refreshed - Margin, “breathe.” The meaning is, that he would then have room to breathe again; he would feel relieved.
Job 32:22 I know not - The more closely we eye the majesty of God as our maker, the more we dread his wrath and justice, the less danger shall we be in of a sinful fearing or flattering of men.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Job 29:1-25 to Job 30:1-31

Job 29:1-25 to Job 30:1-31

Job Chapter 29

What did Job long for? (1-20)

How passionate do you think he wants this?

How did Job describe his life before his suffering in these verses? (1-25)

How was Job regarded prior to his affliction? (21-25)

How do you think he regarded after his affliction?

Job Chapter 30

Who mocked Job? (1)

How did Job describe his life since his suffering began in these verses? (1-15)

What was Job a subject to? (9) What does this mean?

What did they not hesitate to do to Job? (10) What do you think about that?

How did Job characterize his present relationship with God in these verses? (16-23)

How did Job feel that God had become to him? (21) Is He?

How did Job describe his suffering, according to these verses? (24-31)

Discussion Questions

1. What does it do to us mentally to want how things used to be?

2. How do people mock those around us?

3. How can we comfort those suffering?

Job 29:2 Preserved - From all those miseries which now I feel.
Job 29:3 Darkness - I passed safely through many difficulties, and dangers, and common calamities.
**Job 29:5 When the Almighty was yet with me - Job regarded God as withdrawn from him. He now looked back with deep interest to the time when he dwelt with him.
**Job 29:6 When I washed my steps with butter - On the word rendered “butter,” see the notes at Isa_7:15. It properly means curdled milk. Umbreit renders it, Sahne; cream. Noyes, milk, and so Wemyss. The Septuagint, “When my ways flowed with butter” - βουτύρῳ  bouturō. So Coverdale, “When my ways ran over with butter.” Herder, “And where I went a stream of milk flowed on.” The sense may be, that cream or butter was so plenty that he was able to make use of it for the most common purposes - even for that of washing his feet. That butter was sometimes used for the purpose of anointing the feet - probably for comfort and health - as oil was for the head, is mentioned by Oriental travelers. Hassilquist (Travels in Palestine, p. 58), speaking of the ceremonies of the priests at Magnesia on holy Thursday, says, “The priest washed and dried the feet, and afterward besmeared them with butter, which it was alleged was made from the first milk of a young cow.” Bruce says that the king of Abyssinia daily anointed his head with butter. Burder in Rosenmuller’s alte u. neue Morgenland, in loc. It is possible that this use of butter was as ancient as the time of Job, and that he here alludes to it, but it seems more probable that the image is designed to denote superfluity or abundance; and that where he trod, streams of milk or cream flowed - so abundant was it round him. The word rendered “steps” הליכם  hâlı̂ykam) does not properly denote “the feet” but “the tread, the going, the stepping.” This sense corresponds with that of the other member of the parallelism. And the rock poured me out rivers of oil - Margin, “with me.” The idea is, that the very rock near which he stood, seemed to pour forth oil. Instead of water gushing out, such seemed to be the abundance with which he was blessed, that the very rock poured out a running stream of oil. Oil was of great value among the Orientals. It was used as an article of food, for light, for anointing the body, and as a valuable medicine. To say, then, that one had abundance of oil, was the same as to say that he had ample means of comfort and of luxury. Perhaps by the word “rock” here, there is an allusion to file places where olives grew. It is said that those which produced the best oil grew upon rocky mountains. There may be, also, an allusion to this in Deu_32:13 : “He made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock.” Prof. Lee, and some others, however, understand here by the rock, the press where oil was extracted from olives, and which it is supposed was sometimes made of stone.
**Job 29:15 I was eyes to the blind - An exceedingly beautiful expression, whose meaning is obvious. He became their counsellor and guide. And feet was I to the lame - I assisted them, and became their benefactor. I did for them, in providing a support, what they would have done for themselves if they had been in sound health.
***Job 29:20 My glory was fresh in me - My vegetative power was great; my glory - my splendid blossom, large and mellow fruit, was always in season, and in every season. My bow was renewed - I was never without means to accomplish all my wishes. I had prosperity everywhere.
Job 29:24 Laughed - Carried myself so familiarly with them, that they could scarce believe their eyes and ears. Cast not down - They were cautious not to give me any occasion to change my countenance towards them.
Job 29:25 I chose - They sought to me for advice in all difficult cases, and I directed them what methods they should take. Sat - As a prince or judge, while they stood waiting for my counsel. A king - Whose presence puts life, and courage, into the whole army. As one - As I was ready to comfort any afflicted persons, so my consolations were always welcome to them.
Job 30:1 Younger - Whom both universal custom, and the light of nature, taught to reverence their elders and betters. Whose fathers - Whose condition was so mean, that in the opinion, of the world, they were unworthy to be my shepherds the companions of my dogs which watch my flocks.
***Job 30:3 Fleeing into the wilderness - Seeking something to sustain life even in the barren desert. This shows the extreme of want, when the desert is supposed to be the only place where any thing to sustain life can possibly be found.
***Job 30:8 Children of fools - Children of nabal; children without a name; persons of no consideration, and descendants of such. Viler than the earth - Rather, driven out of the land; persons not fit for civil society.
***Job 30:9 Now am I their song - I am the subject of their mirth, and serve as a proverb or by-word. They use me with every species of indignity.
Job 30:15 Terrors - If he endeavoured to shake them off, they turned furiously upon him: if he endeavoured to out run them, they pursued his soul, as swiftly and violently as the wind.
Job 30:28 Without the sun - Heb. black, not by the sun. My very countenance became black, tho' not by the sun, but by the force of my disease.
*Job 30:29 I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls. Or ostriches, as the Targum, Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions; either he was obliged to dwell with such persons as were comparable to these creatures for their devouring words, hissing noise, and venomous speeches, or for want of compassion, and for their cruelty, as David is said to be among lions, Psa_57:4; or also, he was like unto them, being solitary and alone, all his friends and acquaintance standing at a distance from him, as these creatures love lonesome and desolate places; or because of the wailing and howling noise they make, to which his mournful notes bore some resemblance; see Gill on Mic_1:8; or because, when these creatures cry and howl, and make a noise, no mercy is shown to them, none pities or regards them; and so it was with him; though he stood and cried in ever so public a manner, none had any compassion on him.
*Job 30:31 My harp also is turned to mourning,.... Which he used, as David, either in religious worship, expressing praise to God thereby, or for his recreation in an innocent way; but now it was laid aside, and, instead of it, nothing was heard from him, or in his house, but the voice of mourning: and my organ into the voice of them that weep; another instrument of music, which had its name from the pleasantness of its sound, and was of early use, being first invented by Jubal, Gen_4:21; but not that we now so call, which is of late invention: those instruments which Job might have and use, both in a civil and in a religious way, were now, through afflictions, become useless to him, and neglected by him; or these expressions in general may signify, that, instead of mirth and joy he was wont to have, there were nothing now to be heard but lamentation and woe; see Lam_5:15.

* Gills Commentaries   ** Barnes Commentaries   *** Clarke’s Commentaries   
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Job 27:1-23 to Job 28:1-28

Job 27:1-23 to Job 28:1-28

Job Chapter 27

What is this Chapter about? (1)

What did Job say God had denied him in verse two? (2)

What did Job pledge that he would not do as long as he lived in these verses? (3-6)

After all Job has been through what do you think about that?

What did Job say his he wanted his enemy to be like? (7) Who was his enemy?

What is the fate of the wicked, according to Job in these verses? (7-23)

What do you think about that?

Job Chapter 28

Where did Job say people search for wisdom in these verses of this book? (1-19)

According to Job does man know the value of wisdom? (13)

Why do you think he said this?

What is wisdom and where can it be found, according to Job in these verses? (20-28)

Discussion Questions 
1. What is integrity?
2.  Why is it difficult to have integrity?
3. Why is is hard to see the value of wisdom?

***Job 27:1 Continued his parable - After having delivered the preceding discourse, Job appears to have paused to see if any of his friends chose to make any reply; but finding them all silent, he resumed his discourse, which is here called משלו meshalo, his parable, his authoritative weighty discourse; from משל mashal, to exercise rule, authority, dominion, or power - Parkhurst. And it must be granted that in this speech he assumes great boldness, exhibits his own unsullied character, and treats his friends with little ceremony.
Job 27:2 Who - Though he knows my integrity, yet doth not plead my cause against my friends.
***Job 27:4 My lips shall not speak wickedness - As I have hitherto lived in all good conscience before God, as he knoweth, so will I continue to live.
Job 27:6 Reproach - With betraying my own cause and innocency.
***Job 27:7 Let mine enemy be as the wicked - Let my accuser be proved a lying and perjured man, because he has laid to my charge things which he cannot prove, and which are utterly false.
***Job 27:23 Men shall clap their hands at him - These two verses refer to the storm, which is to sweep away the ungodly; therefore the word God, in Job 27:22, and men in this verse, should be omitted. Job 27:22 : “For it shall fall upon him, and not spare: flying from its power he shall continue to fly. Job 27:23. It shall clap its hands against him, and hiss, וישרק veyishrok, shriek, him out of his place.” Here the storm is personified and the wicked actor is hissed and driven by it from off the stage. It seems it was an ancient method to clap the hands against and hiss a man from any public office, who had acted improperly in it. The populace, in European countries, express their disapprobation of public characters who have not pleased them in the same manner to the present day, by hisses, groans, and the like.
Job 28:1 Surely - Job having in the last chapter discoursed of God's various providences toward wicked men, and shewed that God doth sometimes, for a season, give them prosperity, but afterwards calls them to a sad account, and having shewed that God doth sometimes prosper the wicked all their days, so they live and die without any visible token of God's displeasure, when on the contrary, good men are exercised with many calamities; and perceiving that his friends were, scandalized at these methods of Divine providence, and denied the thing, because they could not understand the reason of such dispensations: in this chapter he declares that this is one of the depths of Divine wisdom, not discoverable by any mortal man, and that although men had some degree of wisdom whereby they could search out many hidden things, as the veins of silver, and gold, yet this was a wisdom of an higher nature, and out of man's reach. The caverns of the earth he may discover, but not the counsels of heaven.
**Job 28:13 Man knoweth not the price thereof - The word rendered “price” (ערך ‛êrek) means properly that which is set in a pile or row, or which is arranged in order. Here it means preparation, equipment - that is, anything put in order, or ready, Jdg 17:10. It is also used in the sense of estimation or valuation, Lev 5:15, Lev 5:18. The word “price” here, however, seems to form no proper answer to the question in the previous verse, as the question is, “where” wisdom is to be found, not what is its “value.” Many expositors have, therefore, introduced a different idea in their interpretation. Dr. Good renders it, “Man knoweth not its source.” Prof. Lee, “Man knoweth not its equal.” Herder, “Man knoweth not the seat thereof.” Coverdale, “No man can tell how worthy a thing she is.” The Septuagint renders it, “Man knoweth not - όδὸν άυτῆς hodon autēs - her way.” But the word used here is not employed to denote a “place” or “way,” and the true interpretation doubtless is, that Job does not confine himself to a strict answer of the question proposed in Job 28:12, but goes on to say that man could not buy it; he could neither find it, nor had he the means of purchasing it with all the wealth of which he was the owner. Neither is it found in the land of the living - That is, it is not found among human beings. We must look to a higher source than man for true wisdom; compare Isa 38:11; Isa 53:8.
Job 28:14 The depth - This is not to he found in any part of the sea, though a man may dig or dive ever so deep to find it, nor to be learned from any creature.
***Job 28:15 It cannot be gotten for gold - Genuine religion and true happiness are not to be acquired by earthly property. Solomon made gold and silver as plentiful as the stones in Jerusalem, and had all the delights of the sons of men, and yet he was not happy; yea, he had wisdom, was the wisest of men, but he had not the wisdom of which Job speaks here, and therefore, to him, all was vanity and vexation of spirit. If Solomon, as some suppose, was the author of this book, the sentiments expressed here are such as we might expect from this deeply experienced and wise man.
*Job 28:16 It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir,.... Which is often spoken of in Scripture as choice gold, if not the best; See Gill on Job 22:24; the sense is, that the gold of Ophir is not of the value of wisdom, or of the same worth with that, and so not sufficient to purchase it: with the precious onyx and sapphire: two precious stones that were in the breastplate of the high priest, of which See Gill on Exo 28:9; see Gill on Exo 28:18, and See Gill on Exo 28:20; but not so precious, or of such value as wisdom. Pliny (y) speaks of the onyx stone as in Arabia, near which Job lived, and who doubtless was acquainted with it and its worth, and also with the sapphire he makes mention of before; see Gill on Job 28:6. The word for "valued" is by some rendered "strowed" (z), as goods are when they are exposed to sale; but wisdom should not be laid, or put on a level with these, though so excellent and precious.
Job 28:28 Man - Unto Adam in the day in which he was created. And in him, to all his posterity. Said - God spake it, at first to the mind of man, in which he wrote this with his own finger, and afterwards by the holy patriarchs, and prophets, and other teachers, whom he sent into the world to teach men true wisdom. Behold - Which expression denotes the great importance of this doctrine, and withal man's backwardness to apprehend it. The fear of the Lord - True religion. Wisdom - In man's wisdom, because that, and that only, is his duty, and safety, and happiness, both for this life and for the next. Evil - From sin, which is called evil eminently, as being the chief evil, and the cause of all other evils. Religion consists of two branches, doing good, and forsaking evil; the former is expressed in the former clause of this verse, and the latter in these words; and this is the best kind of knowledge or wisdom to which man can attain in this life. The design of Job in this close of his discourse, is not to reprove the boldness of his friends, in prying into God's secrets, and passing such a rash censure upon him, and upon God's carriage towards him; but also to vindicate himself from the imputation of hypocrisy, which they fastened upon him, by shewing that he had ever esteemed it to be his best wisdom, to fear God, and to depart from evil.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley