Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Job 31:1-40 to Job 32:1-22

Job 31:1-40 to Job 32:1-22

Job Chapter 31

With what did Job make a covenant? (1) What is he saying?

What do you think about that?

In what did Job want to be weighed? (6) Why?

What are some sins Job recognized deserved punishment if he had done them?

Why do you think he brought this up?

If Job had lifted his hand against the fatherless what punishment did he feel he deserved? (21-22)

What did Job wish God would do and Why, according to these verses? (1-40)

Based on the evidence Job supplied in his own defense, what kind of man was he in these verses? (1-40)

Job Chapter 32

Why did the three men cease to answer Job? (1)

Why was Elihu angry with Job? (2) What does this mean?

Why was Elihu angry with Job’s friends? (3-5) What is being said?

Why was Elihu at first afraid to give his opinion? (6-7)

What do great and aged men not necessarily possess? (9) What do you think about that?

Discus ion Questions
1. What does it mean to be on defense with the world around us?
2. When is a good time to give or not to give our opinion?
3.  How would someone know if we are wise?

Job 31:1 I made - So far have I been from any gross wickedness, that I have abstained from the least occasions and appearances of evil.
***Job 31:2 For what portion of God is there from above? - Though I have not, in this or in any other respect, wickedly departed from God, yet what reward have I received?
***Job 31:3 Is not destruction to the wicked - If I had been guilty of such secret hypocritical proceedings, professing faith in the true God while in eye and heart an idolater, would not such a worker of iniquity be distinguished by a strange and unheard-of punishment?
***Job 31:6 Let me be weighed in an even balance - Margin, him weigh me in balances of justice. That is, let him ascertain exactly my character, and treat me accordingly. If on trial it be found that I am guilty in this respect, I consent to be punished accordingly. Scales or balances are often used as emblematic of justice. Many suppose, however, that this verse is a parenthesis, and that the imprecation in Job_31:8, relates to Job_31:5, as well as to Job_31:7. But most probably the meaning is, that he consented to have his life tried in this respect in the most exact and rigid manner, and was willing to abide the result. A man may express such a consciousness of integrity in his dealings with others, without any improper self-reliance or boasting. It may be a simple fact of which he may be certain, that he has never meant to defraud any man.
***Job 31:11 For this is a heinous crime - Mr. Good translates, “For this would be a premeditated crime, And a profligacy of the understanding.” See also Job_31:28. That is, It would not only be a sin against the individuals more particularly concerned, but a sin of the first magnitude against society; and one of which the civil magistrate should take particular cognizance, and punish as justice requires.
Job 31:21 When - When I saw I could influence the judges to do what I pleased.
**Job 31:40 Let thistles grow; - Gen_3:18. Thistles are valueless; and Job is so confident of entire innocence in regard to this, that he says he would be willing, if he were guilty, to have his whole land overrun with noxious weeds. And cockle - Cockle is a well known herb that gets into wheat or other grain. It has a bluish flower, and small black seed, and is injurious because it tends to discolor the flour. It is not certain by any means, however, that this is intended here. The margin is, noisome weeds. The Hebrew word באשׁה  bo'shâh is from באשׁ  bâ'ash, “to have a bad smell, to stink,” and was given to the weed here referred to on that account, compare Isa_34:3. The cockle however, has no unpleasant odor, and the word here probably means noxious weeds. So it is rendered by Herder and by Noyes. The Septuagint has βάτος  batos, bramble; the Vulgate, spina, thorn; Prof. Lee, prunus sylvestris, “a bramble resembling the hawthorn;” Schultens, labrusca, wild vine. The words of Job are ended - That is, in the present speech or argument; his discussions with his friends are closed. He spoke afterward, as recorded in the subsequent chapters, but not in controversy with them. He had vindicated his character, sustained his positions, and they had nothing to reply. The remainder of the book is occupied mainly with the speech of Elihu, and with the solemn and sublime address which God himself makes.

Job 32:1 Because - So they said: but they could not answer him.
Job 32:2 The Buzite - Of the posterity of Buz, Nahor's son, Gen_22:21. Ram - Or, of Aram; for Ram and Aram are used promiscuously; compare 2Ki_8:28; 2Ch_22:5. His pedigree is thus particularly described, partly for his honour, as being both a wise and good man, and principally to evidence the truth of this history. He justified - Himself not without reflection upon God, as dealing severely with him, he took more care to maintain his own innocency, than God's glory. The word Elihu signifies, my God is he. They had all tried in vain to convince Job: but my God is he who both can and will do it.
*Job 32:4 Now Elihu had waited till Job had spoken,.... Made an end of speaking, until he had thus expressed himself, "the words of Job are ended", Job_31:40, and waited likewise until his three friends had said all they had to say, and which is here supposed and implied, as appears by what follows: because they were elder than he; it may be added, from the original text, "in", or "as two days" (l); they had lived longer in the world than he, and therefore did not take upon him to speak till they had done; he, as became a young man, was swift to hear, and slow to speak; that they were old men, appears from what Eliphaz says, Job_15:10.
*Job 32:5 When Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three men,.... That could be called an answer; nay, when he perceived they were quite nonplussed and silenced, though men of years and experience, and reputed wise and knowing:  then his wrath was kindled; his spirit was stirred up; his heart was hot within him; he burned with anger against those men; he was all on fire, as it were, and wanted to vent his resentment.
Job 32:6 Afraid - Of being thought forward and presumptuous.
***Job 32:9 Great men are not always wise - This is a true saying, which the experience of every age and every country increasingly verifies. And it is most certain that, in the case before us, the aged did not understand judgment; they had a great many wise and good sayings, which they had collected, but showed neither wisdom nor discretion in applying them.
***Job 32:16 When I had waited - I waited to hear if they had any thing to reply to Job; and when I found them in effect speechless, then I ventured to come forward.
**Job 32:20 I will speak, that I may be refreshed - Margin, “breathe.” The meaning is, that he would then have room to breathe again; he would feel relieved.
Job 32:22 I know not - The more closely we eye the majesty of God as our maker, the more we dread his wrath and justice, the less danger shall we be in of a sinful fearing or flattering of men.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Job 29:1-25 to Job 30:1-31

Job 29:1-25 to Job 30:1-31

Job Chapter 29

What did Job long for? (1-20)

How passionate do you think he wants this?

How did Job describe his life before his suffering in these verses? (1-25)

How was Job regarded prior to his affliction? (21-25)

How do you think he regarded after his affliction?

Job Chapter 30

Who mocked Job? (1)

How did Job describe his life since his suffering began in these verses? (1-15)

What was Job a subject to? (9) What does this mean?

What did they not hesitate to do to Job? (10) What do you think about that?

How did Job characterize his present relationship with God in these verses? (16-23)

How did Job feel that God had become to him? (21) Is He?

How did Job describe his suffering, according to these verses? (24-31)

Discussion Questions

1. What does it do to us mentally to want how things used to be?

2. How do people mock those around us?

3. How can we comfort those suffering?

Job 29:2 Preserved - From all those miseries which now I feel.
Job 29:3 Darkness - I passed safely through many difficulties, and dangers, and common calamities.
**Job 29:5 When the Almighty was yet with me - Job regarded God as withdrawn from him. He now looked back with deep interest to the time when he dwelt with him.
**Job 29:6 When I washed my steps with butter - On the word rendered “butter,” see the notes at Isa_7:15. It properly means curdled milk. Umbreit renders it, Sahne; cream. Noyes, milk, and so Wemyss. The Septuagint, “When my ways flowed with butter” - βουτύρῳ  bouturō. So Coverdale, “When my ways ran over with butter.” Herder, “And where I went a stream of milk flowed on.” The sense may be, that cream or butter was so plenty that he was able to make use of it for the most common purposes - even for that of washing his feet. That butter was sometimes used for the purpose of anointing the feet - probably for comfort and health - as oil was for the head, is mentioned by Oriental travelers. Hassilquist (Travels in Palestine, p. 58), speaking of the ceremonies of the priests at Magnesia on holy Thursday, says, “The priest washed and dried the feet, and afterward besmeared them with butter, which it was alleged was made from the first milk of a young cow.” Bruce says that the king of Abyssinia daily anointed his head with butter. Burder in Rosenmuller’s alte u. neue Morgenland, in loc. It is possible that this use of butter was as ancient as the time of Job, and that he here alludes to it, but it seems more probable that the image is designed to denote superfluity or abundance; and that where he trod, streams of milk or cream flowed - so abundant was it round him. The word rendered “steps” הליכם  hâlı̂ykam) does not properly denote “the feet” but “the tread, the going, the stepping.” This sense corresponds with that of the other member of the parallelism. And the rock poured me out rivers of oil - Margin, “with me.” The idea is, that the very rock near which he stood, seemed to pour forth oil. Instead of water gushing out, such seemed to be the abundance with which he was blessed, that the very rock poured out a running stream of oil. Oil was of great value among the Orientals. It was used as an article of food, for light, for anointing the body, and as a valuable medicine. To say, then, that one had abundance of oil, was the same as to say that he had ample means of comfort and of luxury. Perhaps by the word “rock” here, there is an allusion to file places where olives grew. It is said that those which produced the best oil grew upon rocky mountains. There may be, also, an allusion to this in Deu_32:13 : “He made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock.” Prof. Lee, and some others, however, understand here by the rock, the press where oil was extracted from olives, and which it is supposed was sometimes made of stone.
**Job 29:15 I was eyes to the blind - An exceedingly beautiful expression, whose meaning is obvious. He became their counsellor and guide. And feet was I to the lame - I assisted them, and became their benefactor. I did for them, in providing a support, what they would have done for themselves if they had been in sound health.
***Job 29:20 My glory was fresh in me - My vegetative power was great; my glory - my splendid blossom, large and mellow fruit, was always in season, and in every season. My bow was renewed - I was never without means to accomplish all my wishes. I had prosperity everywhere.
Job 29:24 Laughed - Carried myself so familiarly with them, that they could scarce believe their eyes and ears. Cast not down - They were cautious not to give me any occasion to change my countenance towards them.
Job 29:25 I chose - They sought to me for advice in all difficult cases, and I directed them what methods they should take. Sat - As a prince or judge, while they stood waiting for my counsel. A king - Whose presence puts life, and courage, into the whole army. As one - As I was ready to comfort any afflicted persons, so my consolations were always welcome to them.
Job 30:1 Younger - Whom both universal custom, and the light of nature, taught to reverence their elders and betters. Whose fathers - Whose condition was so mean, that in the opinion, of the world, they were unworthy to be my shepherds the companions of my dogs which watch my flocks.
***Job 30:3 Fleeing into the wilderness - Seeking something to sustain life even in the barren desert. This shows the extreme of want, when the desert is supposed to be the only place where any thing to sustain life can possibly be found.
***Job 30:8 Children of fools - Children of nabal; children without a name; persons of no consideration, and descendants of such. Viler than the earth - Rather, driven out of the land; persons not fit for civil society.
***Job 30:9 Now am I their song - I am the subject of their mirth, and serve as a proverb or by-word. They use me with every species of indignity.
Job 30:15 Terrors - If he endeavoured to shake them off, they turned furiously upon him: if he endeavoured to out run them, they pursued his soul, as swiftly and violently as the wind.
Job 30:28 Without the sun - Heb. black, not by the sun. My very countenance became black, tho' not by the sun, but by the force of my disease.
*Job 30:29 I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls. Or ostriches, as the Targum, Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions; either he was obliged to dwell with such persons as were comparable to these creatures for their devouring words, hissing noise, and venomous speeches, or for want of compassion, and for their cruelty, as David is said to be among lions, Psa_57:4; or also, he was like unto them, being solitary and alone, all his friends and acquaintance standing at a distance from him, as these creatures love lonesome and desolate places; or because of the wailing and howling noise they make, to which his mournful notes bore some resemblance; see Gill on Mic_1:8; or because, when these creatures cry and howl, and make a noise, no mercy is shown to them, none pities or regards them; and so it was with him; though he stood and cried in ever so public a manner, none had any compassion on him.
*Job 30:31 My harp also is turned to mourning,.... Which he used, as David, either in religious worship, expressing praise to God thereby, or for his recreation in an innocent way; but now it was laid aside, and, instead of it, nothing was heard from him, or in his house, but the voice of mourning: and my organ into the voice of them that weep; another instrument of music, which had its name from the pleasantness of its sound, and was of early use, being first invented by Jubal, Gen_4:21; but not that we now so call, which is of late invention: those instruments which Job might have and use, both in a civil and in a religious way, were now, through afflictions, become useless to him, and neglected by him; or these expressions in general may signify, that, instead of mirth and joy he was wont to have, there were nothing now to be heard but lamentation and woe; see Lam_5:15.

* Gills Commentaries   ** Barnes Commentaries   *** Clarke’s Commentaries   
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Job 27:1-23 to Job 28:1-28

Job 27:1-23 to Job 28:1-28

Job Chapter 27

What is this Chapter about? (1)

What did Job say God had denied him in verse two? (2)

What did Job pledge that he would not do as long as he lived in these verses? (3-6)

After all Job has been through what do you think about that?

What did Job say his he wanted his enemy to be like? (7) Who was his enemy?

What is the fate of the wicked, according to Job in these verses? (7-23)

What do you think about that?

Job Chapter 28

Where did Job say people search for wisdom in these verses of this book? (1-19)

According to Job does man know the value of wisdom? (13)

Why do you think he said this?

What is wisdom and where can it be found, according to Job in these verses? (20-28)

Discussion Questions 
1. What is integrity?
2.  Why is it difficult to have integrity?
3. Why is is hard to see the value of wisdom?

***Job 27:1 Continued his parable - After having delivered the preceding discourse, Job appears to have paused to see if any of his friends chose to make any reply; but finding them all silent, he resumed his discourse, which is here called משלו meshalo, his parable, his authoritative weighty discourse; from משל mashal, to exercise rule, authority, dominion, or power - Parkhurst. And it must be granted that in this speech he assumes great boldness, exhibits his own unsullied character, and treats his friends with little ceremony.
Job 27:2 Who - Though he knows my integrity, yet doth not plead my cause against my friends.
***Job 27:4 My lips shall not speak wickedness - As I have hitherto lived in all good conscience before God, as he knoweth, so will I continue to live.
Job 27:6 Reproach - With betraying my own cause and innocency.
***Job 27:7 Let mine enemy be as the wicked - Let my accuser be proved a lying and perjured man, because he has laid to my charge things which he cannot prove, and which are utterly false.
***Job 27:23 Men shall clap their hands at him - These two verses refer to the storm, which is to sweep away the ungodly; therefore the word God, in Job 27:22, and men in this verse, should be omitted. Job 27:22 : “For it shall fall upon him, and not spare: flying from its power he shall continue to fly. Job 27:23. It shall clap its hands against him, and hiss, וישרק veyishrok, shriek, him out of his place.” Here the storm is personified and the wicked actor is hissed and driven by it from off the stage. It seems it was an ancient method to clap the hands against and hiss a man from any public office, who had acted improperly in it. The populace, in European countries, express their disapprobation of public characters who have not pleased them in the same manner to the present day, by hisses, groans, and the like.
Job 28:1 Surely - Job having in the last chapter discoursed of God's various providences toward wicked men, and shewed that God doth sometimes, for a season, give them prosperity, but afterwards calls them to a sad account, and having shewed that God doth sometimes prosper the wicked all their days, so they live and die without any visible token of God's displeasure, when on the contrary, good men are exercised with many calamities; and perceiving that his friends were, scandalized at these methods of Divine providence, and denied the thing, because they could not understand the reason of such dispensations: in this chapter he declares that this is one of the depths of Divine wisdom, not discoverable by any mortal man, and that although men had some degree of wisdom whereby they could search out many hidden things, as the veins of silver, and gold, yet this was a wisdom of an higher nature, and out of man's reach. The caverns of the earth he may discover, but not the counsels of heaven.
**Job 28:13 Man knoweth not the price thereof - The word rendered “price” (ערך ‛êrek) means properly that which is set in a pile or row, or which is arranged in order. Here it means preparation, equipment - that is, anything put in order, or ready, Jdg 17:10. It is also used in the sense of estimation or valuation, Lev 5:15, Lev 5:18. The word “price” here, however, seems to form no proper answer to the question in the previous verse, as the question is, “where” wisdom is to be found, not what is its “value.” Many expositors have, therefore, introduced a different idea in their interpretation. Dr. Good renders it, “Man knoweth not its source.” Prof. Lee, “Man knoweth not its equal.” Herder, “Man knoweth not the seat thereof.” Coverdale, “No man can tell how worthy a thing she is.” The Septuagint renders it, “Man knoweth not - όδὸν άυτῆς hodon autēs - her way.” But the word used here is not employed to denote a “place” or “way,” and the true interpretation doubtless is, that Job does not confine himself to a strict answer of the question proposed in Job 28:12, but goes on to say that man could not buy it; he could neither find it, nor had he the means of purchasing it with all the wealth of which he was the owner. Neither is it found in the land of the living - That is, it is not found among human beings. We must look to a higher source than man for true wisdom; compare Isa 38:11; Isa 53:8.
Job 28:14 The depth - This is not to he found in any part of the sea, though a man may dig or dive ever so deep to find it, nor to be learned from any creature.
***Job 28:15 It cannot be gotten for gold - Genuine religion and true happiness are not to be acquired by earthly property. Solomon made gold and silver as plentiful as the stones in Jerusalem, and had all the delights of the sons of men, and yet he was not happy; yea, he had wisdom, was the wisest of men, but he had not the wisdom of which Job speaks here, and therefore, to him, all was vanity and vexation of spirit. If Solomon, as some suppose, was the author of this book, the sentiments expressed here are such as we might expect from this deeply experienced and wise man.
*Job 28:16 It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir,.... Which is often spoken of in Scripture as choice gold, if not the best; See Gill on Job 22:24; the sense is, that the gold of Ophir is not of the value of wisdom, or of the same worth with that, and so not sufficient to purchase it: with the precious onyx and sapphire: two precious stones that were in the breastplate of the high priest, of which See Gill on Exo 28:9; see Gill on Exo 28:18, and See Gill on Exo 28:20; but not so precious, or of such value as wisdom. Pliny (y) speaks of the onyx stone as in Arabia, near which Job lived, and who doubtless was acquainted with it and its worth, and also with the sapphire he makes mention of before; see Gill on Job 28:6. The word for "valued" is by some rendered "strowed" (z), as goods are when they are exposed to sale; but wisdom should not be laid, or put on a level with these, though so excellent and precious.
Job 28:28 Man - Unto Adam in the day in which he was created. And in him, to all his posterity. Said - God spake it, at first to the mind of man, in which he wrote this with his own finger, and afterwards by the holy patriarchs, and prophets, and other teachers, whom he sent into the world to teach men true wisdom. Behold - Which expression denotes the great importance of this doctrine, and withal man's backwardness to apprehend it. The fear of the Lord - True religion. Wisdom - In man's wisdom, because that, and that only, is his duty, and safety, and happiness, both for this life and for the next. Evil - From sin, which is called evil eminently, as being the chief evil, and the cause of all other evils. Religion consists of two branches, doing good, and forsaking evil; the former is expressed in the former clause of this verse, and the latter in these words; and this is the best kind of knowledge or wisdom to which man can attain in this life. The design of Job in this close of his discourse, is not to reprove the boldness of his friends, in prying into God's secrets, and passing such a rash censure upon him, and upon God's carriage towards him; but also to vindicate himself from the imputation of hypocrisy, which they fastened upon him, by shewing that he had ever esteemed it to be his best wisdom, to fear God, and to depart from evil.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Job 25:1-6 to Job 26:1-14

Job 25:1-6 to Job 26:1-14

Job Chapter 25

How did Bildad think God viewed humankind in these verses of this book? (1-6)

What do you think about that?

What belongs to God? (2) What does this mean?

What chance does Bildad give of a man being righteous before God? (4-6)

Is he right? Explain your answer.

Job Chapter 26

What questions did Job ask Bildad showing how little he helped Job? (1-4)

What is he saying? What do you think about that?

How did Job describe God’s power in these verses of this book? (5-14)

Upon what did God suspend the earth? (7) What does this mean?

What do you think Job thought of God and of His power?

Why mention this to Biladad?

Discussion Questions
1. What is Righteousness? How can man be righteous?
2. What is frailty? What does it mean to be frail?
3.  What is majesty? What is God's majesty?

*Job 25:1 Then answered Bildad the Shuhite,.... Not to what Job had just now delivered, in order to disprove that, that men, guilty of the grossest crimes, often go unpunished in this life, and prosper and succeed, and die in peace and quietness, as other men; either because he was convinced of the truth of what he had said, or else because he thought he was an obstinate man, and that it was best to let him alone, and say no more to him, since there was no likelihood of working any conviction on him; wherefore he only tries to possess his mind of the greatness and majesty of God, in order to deter him from applying to God in a judicial way, and expecting redress and relief from him;
and said; as follows.
***Job 25:2 Dominion and fear are with him - God is an absolute sovereign; his fear is on all the hosts of heaven; and by his sovereignty he establishes and preserves order in the heavens, and among all the inhabitants of the eternal world: how canst thou, therefore, dare to appeal to him, or desire to appear before him?
Job 25:3 Armies - Of the angels, and stars, and other creatures, all which are his hosts. Light - The light of the sun is communicated to all parts of the world. This is a faint resemblance, of the cognisance and care which God takes of the whole creation. All are under the light of his knowledge: all partake of the light of his goodness: his pleasure is to shew mercy: all the creatures live upon his bounty.
Job 25:4 Man - The word signifies man that is miserable, which supposes him to be sinful; and shall such a creature quarrel with that dominion of God, to which the sinless, and happy, and glorious angels submit? God - Before God's tribunal, to which thou dost so boldly appeal.
Job 25:5 Moon - The moon, tho' bright and glorious, if compared with the Divine Majesty, is without any lustre or glory. By naming the moon, and thence proceeding to the stars, the sun is also included.
Job 25:6 Worm - Mean, and vile, and impotent; proceeding from corruption, and returning to it. The son - For miserable man in the last branch he here puts the son of any man, to shew that this is true even of the greatest and best of men. Let us then wonder at the condescension of God, in taking such worms into covenant and communion with himself!
*Job 26:1 But Job answered,.... In a very sharp and biting manner; one would wonder that a man in such circumstances should have so much keenness of spirit, and deal in so much irony, and be master of so much satire, and be able to laugh at his antagonist in the manner he does:
and said; as follows.
***Job 26:2 How hast thou helped him - This seems a species of irony. How wonderfully hast thou counselled the unskilful and strengthened the weak! Alas for you! ye could not give what ye did not possess! In this way the Chaldee understood these verses: “Why hast thou pretended to give succor, when thou art without strength? And save, while thy arm is weak? Why hast thou given counsel, when thou art without understanding? And supposest that thou hast shown the very essence of wisdom?”
*Job 26:3 How hast thou counselled him that hath no wisdom?.... A man deprived of wisdom has need of counsel, and it should be given him; and he does well both to ask and take it; and be it so, as if Job should say, that I am the foolish and unwise creature you take me to be, what counsel and advice have you given me? what a wise counsellor have you shown yourself to be? or rather, what a miserable part have you acted under this character?
and how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is? the thing in controversy, set it forth in a clear light, and in a copious manner, when he had not said one word about it, namely, concerning the afflictions of the godly, and the prosperity of the wicked; thus jeering at him, and laughing at the short reply he had made, and which was nothing to the purpose.
Job 26:4 To whom - For whose instruction hast thou uttered these things? For mine? Dost thou think I do not know, that which the meanest persons are not unacquainted with; that God is incomparably greater and better than his creatures? Whose spirit - Who inspired thee with this profound discourse of thine?
Job 26:5 Dead things - Job having censured Bildad's discourse, proceeds to shew how little he needed his information in that point. Here he shews that the power and providences of God reaches not only to the things we see, but also to the invisible parts of the world, not only to the heavens above and their inhabitants, and to men upon earth, of which Bildad discoursed, Job 25:2-3, but also to such persons or things as are under the earth, or under the waters; which are out of our sight and reach; yet not out of the ken of Divine providence. These words may be understood; either, of dead, or lifeless things, such as amber, pearl, coral, metals, or other minerals, which are formed or brought forth; by the almighty power of God, from under the waters; either in the bottom of the sea, or within the earth, which is the lowest element, and in the scripture and other authors spoken of as under the waters; this being observed as a remarkable work of God's providence, that the waters of the sea, which are higher than the earth, do not overwhelm it. Or, of dead men, and of the worst of them, such as died in their sins, and after death were condemned to farther miseries; for of such this very word seems to be used, Pro 2:18, Pro 9:18, who are here said to mourn or groan from under the waters; from the lower parts of the earth, or from under those subterranean waters, which are supposed to be within and under the earth; Psa 33:7, and from under the inhabitants thereof; either of the waters or of the earth, under which these waters are, or with the other inhabitants thereof; of that place under the waters, namely, the apostate spirits. So the sense is, that God's dominion is over all men, yea, even the dead, and the worst of them, who though they would not own God, nor his providence, while they lived, yet now are forced to acknowledge and feel that power which they despised, and bitterly mourn under the sad effects of it in their infernal habitations.
Job 26:6 Hell - Is in his presence, and under his providence. Hell itself, that place of utter darkness, is not hid from his sight. Destruction - The place of destruction.
Job 26:7 North - The northern part of the heavens, which is put for the whole visible heaven, because Job and his friends lived in a northern climate. Nothing - Upon no props or pillars, but his own power and providence.
Job 26:9 Holdeth - From our view, that his glory may not dazzle our sight; he covereth it with a cloud. Throne - The heaven of heavens, where he dwelleth.
***Job 26:13 By his Spirit he hath garnished the heavens - See the observations below.
Job 26:14 Parts - But small parcels, the outside and visible work. Portion - Of his power and wisdom, and providence. His Power - His mighty power, is aptly compared to thunder; in regard of its irresistible force, and the terror which it causes to wicked men.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke's Commentaries    
All others by Wesley

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Job 23:1-12 to Job 24:1-25

Job 23:1-12 to Job 24:1-25

Job Chapter 23

What did Job wish he could do, according to these verses of this book? (1-7)

Why did Job think God would not press charges against him in these verses? (6-7)

How did Job characterize his response to his suffering in these verses? (8-12)

What do you think about that?

Why was Job terrified and fearful before God, according to these verses? (13-17)

What is he saying? What do you think about that?

Job Chapter 24

What kind of appointments did Job wish he could set up with God in verse one? (1)

What do you think about that?

What type of evil activities did Job say people engage in, according to these verses? (2-4) Why?

How did Job describe the poor in these verses of this book? (5-11)

What did Job say God did not do despite people’s dying groans and cries for help? (12)

What is he saying?

Why do evil people prefer to do their evil deeds in darkness in these verses? (13-17)  Explain

What did Job say would be the fate of evil people in these verses? (18-22)

Why did Job say God kept a watch on the ways of evil people in verse twenty-three? (23)

How long will evil people get their way, according to verse twenty-four? (24)What does this mean?

Discussion Questions

1. What petitions do you bring before God?

2. How do our days compared to Gods?

3. How does God respond to us?

Job 23:2 To - day - Even at this time, notwithstanding all your pretended consolations. Stroke - The hand or stroke of God upon me. Groaning - Doth exceed my complaints.
Job 23:3 O - I desire nothing more than his acquaintance and presence; but alas, he hides his face from me. Seat - To his throne or judgment - seat to plead my cause before him.
**Job 23:4 I would order my cause before him - Compare the notes at Isa 43:26. That is, I would arrange my arguments, or plead my cause, as one does in a court of justice. I would suggest the considerations which would show that I am not guilty in the sense charged by my friends, and that notwithstanding my calamities, I am the real friend of God.
And fill my mouth with arguments - Probably he means that he would appeal to the evidence furnished by a life of benevolence and justice, that he was not a hypocrite or a man of distinguished wickedness, as his friends maintained.
Job 23:5 Know - If he should discover to me any secret sins, for which he contendeth with me, I would humble myself before him, and accept of the punishment of mine iniquity.
Job 23:6 No - He would not use his power against me, but for me; by enabling me to plead my cause, and giving sentence according to that clemency, which he uses towards his children.
***Job 23:8 Behold, I go forward - These two verses paint in vivid colors the distress and anxiety of a soul in search of the favor of God. No means are left untried, no place unexplored, in order to find the object of his research. This is a true description of the conduct of a genuine penitent.
Job 23:10 Gold - Which comes out of the furnace pure from all dross.
Job 23:14 Performeth - Those calamities which he hath allotted to me. And - There are many such examples of God's proceeding with men.
Job 23:17 Because - God did not cut me off by death. Before - These miseries came upon me. Covered - By hiding me in the grave.
Job 24:1 Why - Why (how comes it to pass) seeing times, (the fittest seasons for every, action, and particularly for the punishment of wicked men,) are not hidden from, or unknown to the Almighty God, (seeing all times, and men that live, and things that are done, or to be done in their times and seasons, are exactly known to God) do they that know him, (who love and obey him) not see (whence is it that they cannot discern) his (that is, God's) days? His times and seasons which he takes for the punishment of ungodly men; which if they were constant and fixed in this life, they would not be unknown to good men, to whom God uses to reveal his secrets.
Job 24:5 Wild asses - Which are lawless, and fierce, and greedy of prey. Desert - Which is the proper habitation of wild asses. They - The oppressors. Go - To spoil and rob.
***Job 24:6 They reap every one his corn in the field - This is perfectly characteristic. These wandering hordes often make sudden irruptions, and carry off the harvest of grain, olives, vines, etc., and plunge with it into the wilderness, where none can follow them. The Chaldee gives the same sense: “They reap in a field that is not their own, and cut off the vineyard of the wicked.”
Job 24:9 They - The oppressors. Pluck - Out of covetousness; they will not allow the mother time for the suckling of her infant.
Job 24:12 Groan - Under grievous oppressions. Soul - The life or blood of those who are wounded to death, as this word properly signifies, crieth aloud to God for vengeance. Yet - Yet God doth not punish them.
Job 24:14 Poor - Where he finds nothing to satisfy his covetousness, he exercises his cruelty.
**Job 24:15 The eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight; - compare the description in Pro 7:8-9, “He went the way to her house; in the twilight, in the evening, in the black and dark night.” And disguiseth his face - Margin, “setteth his face in secret.” The meaning is, that he put a mask on his face, lest he should be recognized. So Juvenal, Sat. viii. 144, as quoted by Noyes: - si nocturnus adulter Tempora Santonico velas adoperta cucullo. These deeds of wickedness were then performed in the night, as they are still; and yet, though the eye of God beheld them, he did not punish them. The meaning of Job is, that people were allowed to commit the blackest crimes, but that God did not come forth to cut them off.
Job 24:16 They - The robber: having on that occasion inserted the mention of the adulterer as one who acted his sin in the same manner as the night - thief did, he now returns to him again.
Job 24:20 Womb - His mother that bare him in her womb. Wickedness - The wicked man. Broken - Broken to pieces, or violently broken down, as the word signifies. Tree - Which being once broken down never grows again.
Job 24:21 He - He here returns to the declaration of his farther wickednesses, the cause of these judgments. Barren - Barrenness was esteemed a curse and reproach; and so he added affliction to the afflicted.
**Job 24:23 Though it be given him to be in safety - That is, God gives him safety. The name God is often understood, or not expressed. The meaning is, that God gives this wicked man, or oppressor, safety. He is permitted to live a life of security and tranquility. Whereon he resteth - Or, rather, “And he is sustained, or upheld” - (וישׁען veyshâ‛an). The meaning is, that he is sustained or upheld by God. Yet his eyes are upon their ways - “And the eyes of God are upon the ways of such men.” That is, God guards and defends them. He seems to smile upon them, and to prosper all their enterprises.
Job 24:24 The way - Out of this world. Other - They can no more prevent or delay their death, than the meanest men in the world. Corn - In its greatest height and maturity.
*Job 24:25 And if it be not so now,.... If this is not the case of men of such wicked lives as above described, do not prosper in the world, and increase in riches, and do not pass through the world with impunity, and die quietly, in the full possession of their honour and wealth:
who will make me a liar? where is the man? let him stand forth and appear, and disprove what has been said, and make out the doctrine delivered to be false doctrine, and a lie; for no lie is of the truth: and make my speech nothing worth; vain, useless, and unprofitable; truth is valuable, like gold, silver and precious stones; but error is as wood, hay, and stubble, and nothing worth, yea, to be detested and rejected: or let him make what I have said to stand "for nothing" (l); let him show, if he can, that it is impertinent, and not to the purpose, that it does not prove the point for which it is brought: thus Job was willing to have what he had said tried by every method that could be made use of, that it might appear whether what he had said was true or false, worthy to be regarded, or worthless; and he here bids defiance to his friends, or to any other, and triumphs over them, as having gained his point; and, as it appears by the sequel, he had, at least in a great measure, and however with respect to this matter, that good men are afflicted in this life, and wicked men prosper; of which there are many instances.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke’s Commentaries    
All others by Wesley  

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Job 22:1-30

Job 22:1-30

1. Verses 1-30 What did Eliphaz seem to imply in his question about people benefiting God? (2-3)

What do you think he means?

Why did Eliphaz think God was punishing Job in these verses of this book? (4-5)

What do you think about that?

What did Eliphaz accuse Job of doing to his brothers and others in these verses? (6-9)

Was he?

What explanation did Eliphaz give for Job’s troubles in these verses? (10-11)

What was Eliphaz implying about God by asking, “Is not God in the heights of heaven?” (12)

What is he saying? 

How did Eliphaz describe Job’s questions about God in these verses? (13-14)

What do you think about that? 

What did Eliphaz say the righteous and innocent rejoice in, according to these verses? (19-20)

What did Eliphaz tell Job to do in these verses of this book? (21-22) Why?

What did Eliphaz say would happen if Job returned to God in these verses? (23-28)

Is he right?

Who did Eliphaz say God would save, according to these verses of this book? (29-30)

What do you think about that?

Discussion Questions
1. What do it mean to be profitable to God?
2. What does God see? Explain your answer
3. How do we see the difference if someone is one of God’s childer?

*Job 22:1 Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said. As Eliphaz was the first that entered the discussion with Job, being perhaps the oldest man, and might be reckoned the wisest, so he gives the lead in every course of disputation; and here, instead of replying to Job's arguments and instances, at which he was very angry, betakes himself to calumny and reproach, and to draw invidious consequences, instead of making use of solid reasons for conviction and confutation.
Job 22:2 Can, &c. - Why dost thou insist so much upon thy own righteousness, as if thou didst oblige God by it.
***Job 22:3 Is it any pleasure to the Almighty - Infinite in his perfections, he can neither gain nor lose by the wickedness or righteousness of men.
***Job 22:4 For fear of thee? - Is it because he is afraid that thou wilt do him some injury, that he has stripped thee of thy power and wealth?
Job 22:5 Evil - Is not thy evil, thy affliction, are not thy calamities procured by, and proportionable to thy sins.
***Job 22:6 Thou hast taken a pledge - Thou hast been vexatious in all thy doings, and hast exacted where nothing was due, so that through thee the poor have been unable to procure their necessary clothing.
**Job 22:7 Thou hast not given water to the weary - That is, thou hast withheld the rites of hospitality - one of the most grievous offences which could be charged on an Arabian; compare the notes at Isa 21:14. In all the Oriental world, hospitality was regarded, and is still, as a duty of the highest obligation.
Job 22:8 Dwelt - Either by thy sentence or permission, he had a peaceable and sure possession of it, whether he had right to it, or no.
Job 22:9 Arms - Their supports, and rights.
**Job 22:11 Or darkness - Darkness and night in the Scriptures are emblems of calamity.
That thou canst not see - Deep and fearful darkness; total night, so that nothing is visible. That is, the heaviest calamities had overwhelmed him. And abundance of waters - An emblem, also, of calamities; Job 27:20; Psa 69:1-2; Psa 73:10.
Job 22:12 Heaven - And from that high tower looketh down upon men, to behold, and govern, and recompense all their actions, whether good or bad. How high - Yet God is far higher than they, and from thence can easily see all things.
***Job 22:14 He walketh in the circuit of heaven - He confines himself to those infinitely exalted regions and cares nothing for the inhabitants of the earth.
Job 22:15 Old way - Heb. the way of antiquity, of men living in ancient times, their end or success.
Job 22:16 Out of - Before their time. A flood - Who, together with their foundation, the earth and all their supports and enjoyments in it, were destroyed by the general deluge.
***Job 22:19 The righteous see it, and are glad - They see God’s judgments on the incorrigibly wicked, and know that the Judge of all the earth does right; hence they rejoice in all the dispensations of his providence.
Job 22:22 Receive - Take the rule whereby thou governest thy thoughts, and words, and whole life, not from thy own imaginations or passions, but from God, from his law, which is written in thy own mind, and from the doctrines and instructions of the holy men of God. And do not only hear them with thine ears, but let them sink into thy heart.
***Job 22:23 Thou shalt be built up - God will restore thee to thy wonted state of prosperity; and thou shalt again have a household, not only of servants, but of children also. So much may be Implied in the words, Thou shalt be Built Up. See my sermon on Job 22:21-23.
*Job 22:24 Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust,.... Have such plenty of it, as not to be counted: and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks; which was reckoned the best, probably in Arabia; not in the East and West Indies, which were not known to Job; though some take this to be an exhortation to despise riches, and as a dissuasion from covetousness, rendering the words, "put gold upon the dust", or earth (i), and trample upon it, as a thing not esteemed by thee, as Sephorno interprets it; make no more account of it than of the dust of the earth; let it be like dirt unto thee, "and among the stones of the brooks", Ophir (k); that is, the gold of Ophir, reckon no more of it, though the choicest gold, than the stones of the brook; or thus, "put gold for dust, and the gold of Ophir for the flint of the brooks" (l); esteem it no more than the dust of the earth, or as flint stones; the latter clause I should choose rather to render, "and for a flint the rivers of Ophir", or the golden rivers, from whence the gold of Ophir was; and it is notorious from historians, as Strabo (m) and others, that gold is taken out of rivers; and especially from the writers of the history of the West Indies (n).
***Job 22:25 Thou shalt have plenty of silver - Here again the versions and critics vary. The critics may disagree; but the doctrine of Eliphaz is sufficiently plain: “To those whom God loves best he gives the most earthly good. The rich and the great are his high favorites: the poor and the distressed he holds for his enemies.” In the above verses there seems to be a reference to the mode of obtaining the precious metals: 1. Gold in dust; 2. Gold in streams from the hills and mountains; 3. Silver in mines; כסף תועפות keseph toaphoth, “silver of giddiness,” of mines so deep as to make one giddy by looking into them. See Mr. Good.
Job 22:26 Lift up - Look up to him, with chearfulness and confidence.
***Job 22:27 Thou shalt make thy prayer unto him - תעתיר tatir, thou shalt open or unbosom thyself. And when the heart prays, God hears; and the person, being blessed, vows fidelity, prays on, is supported, and enabled to pay his vows.
***Job 22:28 Thou shalt also decree a thing - Whatsoever thou purposest in his strength, thou shalt be enabled to accomplish.
Job 22:29 Cast down - All round about thee, in a time of general calamity. There is - God will deliver thee. He - God.
Job 22:30 He, &c. - God will have so great a respect to thy innocency, that for thy sake he will deliver those that belong to thee, or live with thee, or near thee, thought in themselves they be ripe for destruction. Their hands - By thy prayers proceeding from a pure heart and conscience. So Eliphaz and his two friends, who in this matter were not innocent, were delivered by the pureness of Job's hands, Job 42:8.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries     *** Clarke’s Commentaries    All others by Wesley 

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Job 21:1-34

Job 21:1-34

1. Verses 1-34 What did Job ask his friends to do, according to these verses of this book? (1-3)

What do you think about that?

What king of questions did Job ask about the wicked in verse seven? (7) What is he saying?

What do you think about that?

What observations did Job make about the wicked in these verses? (8-13)

How do you suppose Job feels?

What attitude did Job say the wicked had toward God in these verses? (14-15)

Why did Job avoid the advice of wicked people, according to verse sixteen? (16) Why?

What questions did Job ask about the fate of the wicked in these verses? (17-18)

For whom did Job say God stored up a person’s punishment, and why did this bother Job? (19-21)

What is being said here? What do you think about that?

What did Job ask about the teaching in verse twenty-two of this book? (22) What does this mean?

What fate is shared by the person who dies full of vigor and the person who dies in bitterness? (23-26)

What is being said here?

What did Job say his friends thought about what he said in these verses? (27-28)

What did Job say about the fate of the evil person, according to these verses? (29-33)

Why did Job conclude that his friends’ consolation was nonsense, according to verse thirty-four? (34)

What do you think about that?

Discussion Questions
1. Do the wicked suffer the same fate as the Godly? Why/ why not?
2. Who should teach God's words? Why?
3. How do empty words effect people?

*Job 21:1 But Job answered and said. In reply to what Zophar had asserted, concerning the prosperity of the wicked being only for a short time, Job 20:5; the contrary to which he most clearly proves, and that in many instances their prosperity continues as long as they live; that they die in it, and it is enjoyed by their posterity after them.
Job 21:2 Hear, &c. - If you have no other comfort to administer, at least afford me this. And it will be a comfort to yourselves in the reflection, to have dealt tenderly with your afflicted friend.
Job 21:3 Speak - without interruption. Mock - If I do not defend my cause with solid arguments, go on in your scoffs.
***Job 21:4 As for me - האנכי heanochi, “Alas for me!” Is it not with a man that I speak? And, if this be the case, why should not my spirit be troubled? I do not reply against my Maker: I suffer much from God and man; why then may I not have the privilege of complaining to creatures like myself?
Job 21:5 Mark - Consider what I am about to say concerning the prosperity of the worst of men, and the pressures of some good men, and it is able to fill you with astonishment. Lay, &c. - Be silent.
Job 21:6 Remember - The very remembrance of what is past, fills me with dread and horror.
***Job 21:7 Wherefore do the wicked live - You have frequently asserted that the wicked are invariably punished in this life; and that the righteous are ever distinguished by the strongest marks of God’s providential kindness; how then does it come that many wicked men live long and prosperously, and at last die in peace, without any evidence whatever of God’s displeasure? This is a fact that is occurring daily; none can deny it; how then will you reconcile it with your maxims?
***Job 21:8 Their seed is established - They see their own children grow up, and become settled in the land; and behold their children’s children also; so that their generations are not cut off. Even the posterity of the wicked continue.
**Job 21:10 Their bull gendereth - See Rosenmuller and Lee on this verse; comp Bochart, Hieroz. P. 1, Lib. ii. c. xxx. The general idea is, that the wicked were prospered as well as the pious. God did not interpose by a miracle to cut off their cattle, and to prevent their becoming rich.
***Job 21:11 They send forth their little ones - It is not very clear whether this refers to the young of the flocks or to their children. The first clause may mean the former, the next clause the latter; while the young of their cattle are in flocks, their numerous children are healthy and vigorous, and dance for joy.
*Job 21:12 They take the timbrel and harp,.... Not the children, but the parents of them; these took these instruments of music into their hands, and played upon them while their children danced; thus merrily they spent their time: or, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra, they lift up the voice with the tabret and harp; that is, while they played on these with their hands, they sung songs with their mouths; they used both vocal and instrumental music together, to make the greater harmony, and give the greater pleasure, like those in Amo 6:5;
and rejoice at the sound of the organ; a musical instrument, very pleasant and entertaining, from whence it has its name in the Hebrew tongue; but of what form it was cannot be with certainty said; that which we now so call is of later invention, and unknown in those times: probably Job may have respect to Jubal, the inventor of this sort of music, and others of the posterity of Cain before the flood, who practised it, and were delighted in it; in which they were imitated and followed by wicked men after it, and in Job's time, Gen 4:21.
Job 21:13 Moment - They do not die of a lingering and tormenting disease.
Job 21:14 Therefore - Because of their constant prosperity. Say - Sometimes in words, but commonly in their thoughts and the language of their lives.
***Job 21:15 What is the Almighty - What allegiance do we owe to him? We feel no obligation to obey him; and what profit can we derive from prayer? We are as happy as flesh and blood can make us: our kingdom is of this world; we wish for no other portion than that which we have. Those who have never prayed as they ought know nothing of the benefits of prayer.
Job 21:16 Lo - But wicked men have no reason to reject God, because of their prosperity, for their wealth, is not in their hand; neither obtained, nor kept by their own might, but only by God's power and favour. Therefore I am far from approving their opinion, or following their course.
Job 21:17 Often - I grant that this happens often though not constantly, as you affirm. Lamp - Their glory and outward happiness.
Job 21:19 Layeth up - In his treasures, Rom 2:5. Iniquity - The punishment of his iniquity; he will punish him both in his person and in his posterity.
Job 21:20 See - He shall be destroyed; as to see death, is to die.
Job 21:21 For what pleasure hath he in his house after him - What may happen to his posterity he neither knows nor cares for, as he is now numbered with the dead, and numbered with them before he had lived out half his years. Some have translated the verse thus: “Behold how speedily God destroys the house of the wicked after him! How he shortens the number of his months!”
Job 21:22 Teach - How to govern the world? For so you do, while you tell him that he must not afflict the godly, nor give the wicked prosperity. That he must invariably punish the wicked, and reward the righteous in this world. No: he will act as sovereign, and with great variety in his providential dispensations. High - The highest persons, on earth, he exactly knows them, and gives sentence concerning them, as he sees fit.
***Job 21:23 One dieth in his full strength - In this and the three following verses Job shows that the inequality of fortune, goods, health, strength, etc., decides nothing either for or against persons in reference to the approbation or disapprobation of God, as these various lots are no indications of their wickedness or innocence. One has a sudden, another a lingering death; but by none of these can their eternal states be determined.
*Job 21:24 His breasts are full of milk,.... As this is not literally true of men, some versions read the words otherwise; his bowels or intestines are full of fat, as the Vulgate Latin and Septuagint; and others, his sides or ribs are full of fat, as the Syriac and Arabic; the words for "side" and "fat" being near in sound to those here used; and so it describes a man fit and plump, and fleshy, when death lays hold upon him, and not wasted with consumptions and pining sickness, as in the case of some, Job 33:21; the word for breasts is observed by some (h) to signify, in the Arabic language, "vessels", in which liquors are contained, and in the Misnic language such as they put oil in, out of which oil is squeezed; and so are thought here to intend such vessels as are milked into; and therefore render it by milk pails; so Mr. Broughton, "his pails are full of milk" (i); which may denote the abundance of good things enjoyed by such persons, as rivers of honey and butter; contrary to Zophar's notion, Job 20:17; and a large increase of oil and wine, and all temporal worldly good; amidst the plenty of which such die: and his bones are moistened with marrow; not dried up through a broken spirit, or with grief and trouble, and through the decays of old age; but, being full of marrow, are moist, and firm and strong; and so it intimates, that such, at the time when death seizes them, are of an hale, healthful, robust, and strong constitution; see Psa 73:4.
***Job 21:28 For ye say, Where is the house of the prince? - In order to prove your point, ye ask, Where is the house of the tyrant and oppressor?
Are they not overthrown and destroyed? And is not this a proof that God does not permit the wicked to enjoy prosperity?
Job 21:29 Them - Any person that passes along the high - way, every one you meet with. It is so vulgar a thing, that no man of common sense is ignorant of it. Tokens - The examples, or evidences, of this truth, which they that go by the way can produce.
Job 21:31 Declare - His power and splendor are so great, that scarce any man dare reprove him.
Job 21:34 How - Why then do you seek to comfort me with vain hopes of recovering my prosperity, seeing your grounds are false, and experience shews, that good men are often in great tribulation, while the vilest of men prosper.

* Gills Commentaries    ** Barnes Commentaries    *** Clarke’s Commentaries   
 All others by Wesley